Have you ever seen someone—maybe a dancer or basketball player—demonstrate fantastic ability in their field and assumed that they’re gifted with an innate talent that only a few people possess?
Most likely, the answer is “yes.” People are enamored with the idea of innate talent and “giftedness,” but this mentality has flaws. It overlooks the possibility of achievement for those who are not inherently “gifted.”
More and more, research is emerging to suggest that inborn talent doesn’t determine success. Instead, grit, a relatively new concept in psychology, is becoming a key factor in achievement.
The concept of grit, defined as passion and perseverance in working toward significant long-term goals, is one explanation for why intelligence and talent do not always lead to success.
This article delves into it all things “grit,” and how it can become the drive that propels you forward.
This article contains:
The Two Ultimate Questions: The ‘What’ and ‘How’ of our Abilities
Compared with what we ought to be, we are only half awake. Our fires are damped, our drafts are checked. We are making use of only a small part of our possible mental resources…Men the world over possess amounts of resource, which only exceptional individuals push to their extremes of use.
In 1907, William James called for more research into two problems that he believed encompassed the entire field of psychology. These two questions were:
- What are the types of human abilities?
- By what means do individuals unleash these abilities?
Since then, researchers have made huge strides in answering the first question. Psychologists know more about intelligence and mental ability than any other factor that contributes to individual differences.
However, psychologists still haven’t fully grasped why people of equal intelligence reach different levels of accomplishment.
In plain words, you’ve got to make up your mind to study whatever you undertake, and concentrate your mind on it, and really work at it. This isn’t wisdom. Any damned fool in the world knows it’s true, whether it’s a question of raising horses or writing plays. You simply have to face the prospect of starting at the bottom and spending years learning how to do it.
So how can we possibly account for extraordinary performance and success? Contrary to popular belief, natural talent and intelligence appear to have only a limited impact on our successes.
Renowned researcher, psychologist, UPenn professor, and MacArthur “genius grant” fellowship recipient, Angela Duckworth, has contributed a vast amount to the literature by introducing and exploring the concept of ‘grit’ (Duckworth et al., 2007; Duckworth, 2016)
According to Duckworth, a high IQ or inborn talent wasn’t the reason she has succeeded. Instead, she credits her accomplishments to her passionate commitment and perseverance.
Duckworth discovered that what we accomplish often depends more on our passion, resilience, and commitment to our goals, rather than on our innate talents. Duckworth suggests that there is one individual trait shared by leaders in every field: grit. She wrote:
“It entails diligently working towards challenges and being able to maintain effort and interest over long periods of time (years) despite setbacks and stagnation in progress” (2007).
What is Grit?
If it’s not IQ, and if it’s not luck, then what exactly is grit?
In short, it describes:
“…the tenacious pursuit of a dominant superordinate goal despite setbacks” (Duckworth & Gross, 2014, p.319); or
“[the] perseverance and passion for long-term goals…working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress.” (Duckworth et al., 2007, p.1088).
As she describes in her book, Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance, Duckworth’s early research was concerned with traits, besides IQ, differentiated students who later became leaders in their fields.
Across six studies, she found grit was a factor in successful outcomes. Here are some of her top research findings:
- More determined undergraduates had higher average grades than their peers;
- At West Point, an elite military academy in the U.S., the grittier cadets were more likely to endure the rigorous summer training, and grit was a better predictor of completion of the summer program than any other factor;
- Grittier spelling bee participants outranked their less gritty competitors;
- People with grit had higher levels of education and made fewer career changes than less gritty individuals of the same age.
The Treadmill Test: How Does Grit Work?
Will Smith, a Grammy Award-winning rapper and beloved actor, once said:
I’ve never viewed myself as particularly talented. Where I excel is ridiculous, sickening work ethic.
When asked to explain his climb to super-fame further, he said:
The only thing I see that is distinctively different about me is that: I’m not afraid to die on a treadmill. I will not be outworked, period. You might have more talent than me, you might be smarter, you might be sexier. But if we get on the treadmill together, there’s two things: You’re getting off first or I’m going to die. It’s really that simple.
In 1940, long before Smith was known as The Fresh Prince, researchers at Harvard decided to study the characteristics of healthy young men to “help people live happier, more successful lives.”
For the study, they asked 130 college sophomores to run on a treadmill for up to 5 minutes.
The treadmill was so steep and so fast that the average man lasted only about 4 minutes, and some lasted only a minute and a half. The study, known as the Treadmill Test, was physically and mentally challenging, and it was designed to assess stamina and strength of will specifically.
Researchers were well aware that the performance on the test was not just a matter of fitness level but was highly correlated to the “extent to which a subject is willing to push himself or has a tendency to quit before the punishment becomes too severe.” In other words, it was about the participants’ grit.
Psychologist George Vaillant extended the longitudinal study following up with those same participants decades later. Most of them, now in their 60s, had been contacted by researchers every two years since college to complete questionnaires and interviews regarding their income, career advancement, sick days, social activities, satisfaction with work, marriage, and use of psychiatric medication. (Vaillant, 2002).
All the information was compiled into an estimate of the men’s overall psychological adjustment in adulthood.
The Treadmill Test, conducted when they were just 20 years old, appeared to be a reliable predictor of their psychological adjustment in adulthood (Vaillant, 2012).
There’s a saying that goes: The way we do one thing is the way we do most things. So, if you step on a treadmill as a study subject and give it your all, it may well be that you’re likely to approach life with the same tenacity and determination.
So, How Do We Develop Grit?
The Original Grit Scale (Grit-O) was developed by Duckworth and colleagues in 2007; it’s a 12-item self-report measure that allows people to assess their levels of grit (Duckworth et al., 2007). A couple of years later, it was condensed into a shorter, 8-item instrument called The Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) that can be used as both a self- and informant-report measure (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009).
The Grit-S includes two scales measuring ‘Consistency of Interest’ and ‘Perseverance of Effort,’ and includes example items such as:
- I have been obsessed with a specific idea or project for a short time but later lost interest;
- New ideas and projects sometimes distract me from previous ones;
- I have achieved a goal that took years of work; and
- I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge.
4 Techniques to Develop Grit
Being able to measure grit puts us in a good position to understand how we can move ourselves, or encourage our clients to move, upward on this continuum. So how can we become grittier?
Here are practical steps that will help you exercise your grit “muscles:”
1) Take Play Seriously
Has anyone ever told you to find your passion? Though it’s common advice, “find” might be the wrong verb to use when it comes to discovering a passion (Duckworth, 2016).
Instead of “finding” a passion or waiting for it to find you — which puts you in a passive and often helpless position — “developing” your passion might be more productive. Instead of waiting for the passion to strike us like a bolt of lightning, we can take action to cultivate passion.
To develop a passion, try simply exploring and playing, without putting pressure on yourself to figure out which interests will stick and which won’t.
Interests are not found through contemplation or thought but are developed through interactions with the outside world. So don’t overthink it, go out and play.
2) Develop a Passion
Whatever it is that you want to do, you’ll find in life that if you’re not passionate about what it is you’re working on, you won’t be able to stick with it.
A significant component of grit is perseverance, and let’s face it: Few people are willing to work day in and day out on something in which they’re entirely uninterested (Deci et al., 1999; Deci & Ryan, 2010).
Research has shown that people have much greater work satisfaction and job performance when they do something that fits with their interests (Judge et al., 2011; Bakan et al., 2014; Suzuki et al., 2015). However, it’s unlikely that someday you’ll try something and immediately know that it’s what you want to do for the rest of your life.
In multiple interviews with high achievers, Duckworth (2016) has found that for a lot of them, the road to their passion wasn’t smooth, and many of them spent years exploring different avenues.
Barry Schwartz, a psychology teacher at Swarthmore College and author of the book The Paradox of Choice, argues that what most often holds people back from a serious career interest is unrealistic expectations (Wrzesniewski et al., 1997; Schwartz, 2004).
Schwartz compares this to the process of finding a mate; he describes meeting a potential match as ‘only the very beginning.’
Duckworth, meanwhile, shows through her research that “passion for your work is a little bit of discovery, followed by a lot of development, and then a lifetime of deepening.” (Duckworth, 2016, p.91-92)
If you’re in the discovery stage, these questions might be helpful:
- What do I like to think about?
- Where does my attention normally wander to?
- What do I really care about?
- What matters most to me?
- How do I enjoy spending my time?
But remember: You have to develop and deepen an interest before it becomes a passion.
3) Practice Deliberately
Practice doesn’t always lead to mastery. Sure, it helps, but let’s face it: You could practice tennis for ten years and never master the perfect serve. So, what is it that sets apart those who achieve extraordinary levels of mastery in their fields?
They don’t just practice; they practice deliberately. Here’s to do it:
- Set a stretch goal (a goal that exceeds your current level of skill);
- Practice with full concentration and effort (channel Will Smith.);
- Look for immediate and informative feedback; and
- Repeat with reflection and refinement.
Read more about Goal Setting in our article: How to Set and Achieve Goals the Right Way.
4) Focus on Purpose
At the heart of purpose is the idea that what you do matters, not just to yourself but to others. Purpose, which has been linked with both hope and life satisfaction, has a prosocial focus (Cotton Bronk et al., 2009).
In any activity, there are bound to be setbacks and moments of boredom, doubt, anxiety, and disappointment. We’re more likely to push through the hard times if our efforts give us meaning and contribute to something larger than ourselves.
In her research, Duckworth found a correlation between grit and purpose. Grittier individuals were more motivated to seek meaning in their lives, and the contribution of their efforts to the lives of others revealed a powerful source of motivation (Von Culin et al., 2014; Hill et al., 2016).
So one way of focusing on your purpose is to seek out the prosocial benefits of whatever it is that you do because doing so is linked to greater satisfaction at work and in life.
A Take-Home Message
So is grit the new “it” when it comes to explaining extraordinary performance and achievement?
Research shows it’s definitely part of the equation. Still, it’s important to keep in mind that we are complex beings whose outcomes are determined by numerous traits and factors. Improving success and performance, therefore, requires us to consider more than a single concept.
With that said, Duckworth’s research work is essential in that it challenges the importance of innate talent, helping to highlight the fact that behind every extraordinary person are countless hours of dedicated practice and commitment. That’s something each of us can work toward.
Can you identify an area or time in your life where you demonstrated this kind of passion and perseverance? And what could you achieve if you started applying these grit steps in your life right now?
We’d love to hear from you, so add your voice in the comments below.
- Bakan, I., Buyukbese, T., Ersahan, B., & Sezer, B. (2014). Effects of Job Satisfaction on Job Performance and Occupational Commitment. International Journal of Management & Information Technology, 9(1), 1472.
- Cotton Bronk, K., Hill, P. L., Lapsley, D. K., Talib, T. L., & Finch, H. (2009). Purpose, hope, and life satisfaction in three age groups. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 500.
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Intrinsic motivation. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1.
- Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627.
- Duckworth, A. (2016): The Power of Passion and Perseverance. New York: Scribner.
- Duckworth, A., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 319.
- Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087.
- Duckworth, A.L, & Quinn, P.D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (GritS). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 166.
- Hill, P. L., Burrow, A. L., & Bronk, K. C. (2016). Persevering with positivity and purpose: An examination of purpose commitment and positive affect as predictors of grit — Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 257.
- Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376.Packard, E. (2007). Grit: It’s what separates the best from the merely good. American Psychological Association, 38(10), 10.
- Schwartz, B. (2004). The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less. New York: Ecco.
- Suzuki, Y., Tamesue, D., Asahi, K., & Ishikawa, Y. (2015). Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-sectional Study. PloS one, 10(9), e0137501.
- Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to Life. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
- Vaillant, G. E. (2002). Aging Well. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
- Vaillant, G. E. (2012). Triumphs of Experience: The Men of the Harvard Grant Study. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
- Von Culin, K. R., Tsukayama, E., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Unpacking grit: Motivational correlates of perseverance and passion for long-term goals. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 306.
- Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People’s relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(1), 21.