The Self

Here you will find articles about the self as well as important research findings and useful or/and interesting insights on this topic.

Using Self-Awareness Theory and Skills in Psychology

self-awareness theory

How self-aware are you? Asking that question, and getting you to reflect on it, is an example of self-awareness. How often do you find yourself engaging in this type of reflection? If you answered, 'not often,' then this article is perfect for you. If you responded, 'all the time!' this […]

22 Self-Actualization Tests and Tools to Apply Maslow’s Theory

maslows theory self-actualization

Throughout our lives, we go through many different journeys. As we grow older, we move away from the family home, and our needs change. Although some of our core needs remain the same - such as a place to live, clean water, food on the table - our emotional needs […]

16 Self-Concept Questionnaires, Activities and Tests (+PDF)


Take a moment and ask yourself: Who am I? How do you answer such a complex question? It’s tough and one that psychologists have consistently sought to help us with. ‘Self-concept’ might not be a term you’re generally familiar with, but it’s one that’s well worth knowing about. It essentially […]

What is Positive Self-Talk? (Incl. Examples)

Positive self-talk

It’s not uncommon for most of us to keep a running dialogue inside our heads. This dialogue can range from giving ourselves instructions while we carry out a task, random observations about our environment or a situation, or it could be what is often referred to as self-talk. Self-talk is […]

17 Self-Awareness Activities and Exercises (+Test)


How self-aware do you feel you are? In terms of psychology, self-awareness is often defined as the ability to engage in some kind of reflective awareness. As you develop an awareness of the self, you begin to connect with your own unique identity. As you focus on yourself and start […]

10 Best Self-Awareness Books for Increasing Reflection

Self-Awareness Books

How often do you take a moment to reflect on your thoughts and emotions? Have you ever explored the underlying causes of your behavior? Self-awareness drives us closer to ourselves. It lets us gain clarity over our emotions, and helps to identify the strengths and weaknesses that lie within us. […]

19 Best Books on Self-Discipline and Self-Control [2019]

Books self-discipline

Self-discipline goes by many names – willpower, self-control, and self-regulation, to name a few. It helps us stay focused, deal adaptively with distractions, and accomplish what we intend to do, among many other things. Some researchers have linked self-discipline with accomplishment, others with well-being, and still others argue that it’s […]

40+ Benefits of Self-Control and Self-Discipline

benefits of self-control

For many people, self-control represents a deeply desired; yet, allusive attribute that too often slips through our fingertips. There is a multitude of areas in everyday life where so many of us want to do better. This is particularly evident given the millions of people (including almost half of Americans) […]

Top 11 Benefits of Self-Awareness According to Science

Benefits of self-awareness

So many humans are walking around this planet unaware of the impact they have on the people around them. Within each of us is a tremendous capacity to affect change. Yet, too many of us simply react to the creations of others. Being self-aware and practicing daily reflection and introspection […]

Measuring Self-Efficacy with Scales and Questionnaires

Self Efficacy Scale

Self-efficacy is all about your belief in your own abilities as it pertains to dealing with various situations. Self-efficacy can play a big role in your life, impacting not only how you feel about yourself but also how successful you might be. According to Albert Bandura, an influential social cognitive […]

What is Self-Reliance and How to Develop It?

what is self-reliance

Self-reliance is all that it sounds like plus considerably more. If not introduced to the world by Ralph Waldo Emerson, it was definitely brought to much popular public awareness by his 1841 essay Self-Reliance. In positive psychology, self-reliance has strong theoretical significance thanks to its implications for happiness. You’ll probably […]

4 Ways To Improve And Increase Self-Efficacy

improve self-efficacy

Self-efficacy is the belief we have in our abilities and competencies. Albert Bandura (1977), a pioneer humanist and father of the concept of self-efficacy, defined it as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise their influence over events that affect their lives” (Bandura, 1994). […]

What is Self-Image and How Do We Improve it? Definition + Quotes

What is self-image

Self-image is yet another of the “self” concepts essential to understand in positive psychology. Although related to the others, it is a distinct concept that has its own place and its own importance. If you’re not sure what self-image is, you’ve come to the right place! Read on to learn […]

What is Self-Worth and How Do We Increase it? (Incl. 4 Worksheets)

What is Self-Worth and How Do We Increase it? Definition, Quotes + 4 Worksheets

Chances are, you've heard of the many, many "self-" words. There’s self-esteem, self-compassion, self-acceptance, self-respect, self-confidence, self-love, self-care, and so on.  There are so many words to describe how we feel about ourselves, how we think about ourselves, and how we act toward ourselves. It’s understandable if they all start to […]

19 Self-Acceptance Quotes For Relating To Yourself In A Healthier Way

  “There is no greater suffering than constantly measuring yourself and coming up short, except perhaps the realization that your suffering is hurting others. But where do we learn these things? Because, really, they are learned. We don't come crying out of the womb because of our birth weight or […]

What is Self-Expression and How to Foster It? (20 Activities + Examples)


Do you ever stop to think about how you share yourself with others? We all have our own unique quirks and traits, and we all have our own preferences and style for sharing pieces of ourselves with those around us. You likely have a different level of sharing comfort with […]

12 Tips For Building Self-Confidence and Self-Belief (+PDF Worksheets)

self-confidence self-belief

“Whether you think you can or whether you think you can’t, you’re right.” – Henry Ford This classic quote from automobile magnate Henry Ford is a perfect lead into this piece. The topic is self-confidence and self-belief, two ingredients to a healthy and happy life. According to Ford, your belief […]

What is Self-Acceptance? 25 Exercises + Definition and Quotes

Woman Lying Down On Autumn Leaves

Do you accept yourself? It might sound like an odd question; after all, what does it even mean to accept yourself? Don’t we all accept ourselves as a regular part of living our day-to-day lives? As it turns out, self-acceptance is not an automatic or default state. Many of us […]

What is Self-Confidence? + 9 Ways to Increase It

Self-Confidence: 9 Essential Ways to Become More Self-Confident

The self-esteem movement has swept through Western culture over the past 50 years, with parents and teachers alike doubling down on the idea that improving children’s self-confidence will lead to improved performance, and a more successful life in general (Baskin, 2011). This movement started with a book published in 1969, […]

What is Self-Regulation? (+95 Skills and Strategies)

What is Self-Regulation? Definition, Theory + 95 Skills and Strategies

Why don't adults always do exactly what we feel like doing, when we feel like doing it? This is a question that you might hear from kids, and it perfectly encapsulates what baffles them about adults. As adults, we pretty much have free rein to do whatever we want, whenever […]

What is Self-Concept Theory? A Psychologist Explains.

What is Self-Concept Theory in Psychology? Definition + Examples (PDF)

Who are you? What makes you “you?” You might answer with “I’m a mother,” or, “I’m a therapist,” or maybe, “I’m a believer,” “I’m a good friend," "I'm a brother." Maybe you answer with, “I am excellent at my job,” “I’m an accomplished musician,” or “I’m a successful athlete.” Other […]

What is Self-Efficacy Theory in Psychology? (+PDF)

You’ve no doubt heard of self-efficacy before, but it might not mean what you think it means. Self-efficacy is not self-image, self-worth, or any other similar construct. It is often assigned the same meaning as variables such as these, along with confidence, self-esteem, or optimism; however, it has a slightly […]

What is Self-Esteem? A Psychologist Explains.

Self-Esteem in Psychology: a Definition, Examples, Books (+TED Talks)

“Believe in yourself.” That is the message that we encounter constantly, in books, television shows, superhero comics, and common myths and legends. We are told that we can accomplish anything if we believe in ourselves. Of course, we know that to be untrue; we cannot accomplish anything the in the […]

83 Benefits of Journaling for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

83 Benefits of Journaling for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Management (PDF)

When you think of "journaling," you might picture a tween girl, laying on her bed with her feet waving lazily through the air and writing about her crush in a diary. The word often has that connotation for adults: the sense that it’s for young people who are trying to […]

7 Best Mood Tracker Ideas For Your Bullet Journal Mood Charts (+PDFs)

mood charts

You can’t manage what you don’t measure. This is true in business, health, and can even be applied to personal life. The fact is unless an individual is able to organize, analyze and process the data they’re working with, reaching an accurate conclusion can be difficult. Firstly, because one needs […]

62 Stress Management Techniques, Strategies & Activities

62 Stress Management Techniques & Tips To Prevent A Burn Out

What happens when we continue "burning the candle at both ends" until we reach physical and emotional exhaustion? Just like the candle itself, we risk burning ourselves out. There is a parable of a frog sitting in a pot on the stove. If dropped into a pot of boiling water, […]

87 Self-Reflection Questions for Introspection [+Exercises]

Introspection in Psychology: 87 Self-Reflection Questions, Exercises & Worksheets

Have you ever thought about your own thoughts or questioned your mental processes? Do you sometimes take time to clarify your values in a moment of doubt or uncertainty? If you answered "yes," you are no stranger to self-reflection and introspection (terms that will be used more or less interchangeably […]

Theory of Positive Disintegration 101: On Becoming Your Authentic Self

Theory of Positive Disintegration 101: On Becoming Your Authentic Self

Do you ever wonder why some people go through a life-altering crisis only to come out the other side stronger and more at peace with themselves, while others fall apart and struggle to carry on? It’s hard to predict who will rise from a tragedy like a phoenix from the […]

18 Self-Esteem Worksheets and Activities for Teens and Adults (+PDFs)

self esteem worksheets

We all experience moments of self-doubt and uncertainty. Even the most confident and happy people have moments where they think, “I’m such a failure.” It’s a part of being human. However, if you find yourself having these kinds of negative thoughts frequently or letting these feelings get in the way […]

What is Self-Actualization? A Psychologist’s Definition [+Examples]


The concept of self-actualization was brought into the mainstream by Abraham Maslow when he introduced his “hierarchy of needs.” Today, self-actualization is a bit more widely known, but most psychology students still learn of it as the top level of Maslow’s pyramid. This article will define self-actualization, review the relevant […]

What is Self-Awareness and Why is it Important? [+5 Ways to Increase It]

Self awareness knowledge psychology

From the ancient Greek Aphorism “know thyself” to western psychology, the topic of self-awareness has been studied by philosophers and psychologists for the last century. In this article, we will cover what self-awareness is, how it can be beneficial in a therapy session, why it is difficult to achieve, and […]

Albert Bandura: Self-Efficacy for Agentic Positive Psychology

Albert Bandura, aged 93, is one of the most renowned living psychologists in the field of psychology, as well one of the most cited (Haggbloom et al., 2002). Throughout his career, Bandura contributed to many branches of psychology including social cognitive theory, reciprocal determinism, and the famous ‘Bobo Doll Experiments.’ […]