What is Resilience and Why is It Important to Bounce Back?

What is resilience and can it be learnedOne of the most popular topics in positive psychology—both in the field itself and in mainstream discussion of positive psychological concepts—is resilience.

To some, resilience is a sort of “miracle drug” personality trait, something that can heal all wounds and right all wrongs.

While resilience may not be the end-all and be-all of personality traits, it’s such a hot topic for good reason: it is a wonderful trait to have, it is related to a plethora of positive outcomes, and—perhaps most important of all—it can be improved.

Read on to learn more about resilience and why it deserves every bit of the attention it gets.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Resilience Exercises for free. These engaging, science-based exercises will help you to effectively deal with difficult circumstances and give you the tools to improve the resilience of your clients, students, or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

What is Resilience? A Definition

Psychology Today describes it this way:

“Resilience is that ineffable quality that allows some people to be knocked down by life and come back stronger than ever. Rather than letting failure overcome them and drain their resolve, they find a way to rise from the ashes.”

In a nutshell, resilience can be defined as the ability – and tendency – to “bounce back.”


What’s the Meaning of Bouncing Back?

Bouncing back” is what we do when we face disappointment, defeat, and failure, but instead of wallowing or letting things keep us down, we get back up and continue on with our lives.

According to the APA Help Center, it’s “the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress” (APA Help Center, n.d.).

You might say someone bounces back when they experience a traumatic car accident and sustain serious injuries, but stay positive and optimistic through a long physical therapy journey.


Resilience and Mental Toughness: What’s the Difference?

Aside from the term “bouncing back,” there are many more similar concepts that resilience is often associated with. For instance, resilience is frequently used interchangeably with “mental toughness.”

So what is mental toughness? Mental toughness is “a personality trait which determines in large part how individuals deal with stress, pressure and challenge irrespective of circumstances” (Strycharczyk, 2015). It’s part hardiness (optimism and predisposition towards challenge and risk), part confidence, and it is what allows people to take whatever comes in stride, with a focus on what they can learn and gain from the experience.

While the association with resilience is understandable, it’s also easy to see where they differ: resilience is what helps people recover from a setback, but mental toughness can help people avoid experiencing a setback in the first place.

As Doug Strycharczyk puts it, “All mentally tough individuals are resilient, but not all resilient individuals are mentally tough” (2015).

Those who are mentally tough are not only able to bounce back, they are more likely to see hardship as a welcome challenge and greet it with a smile.


Resilience vs. Grit

Another commonly used synonym for resilience is grit, but is grit really a synonym for resilience?

According to Professor Guy Claxton’s Building Learning Power organization, grit is not just a synonym for resilience:

“Grit is a more recent import, much researched by Angela Duckworth, and is defined as the tendency to sustain interest and effort towards long term goals. It is associated with self control and deferring short term gratification”

(Building Learning Power, n.d.).

Resilience is more narrowly defined, although it is related to the same experiences, skills, and competencies. One simple way to think about the differences between resilience and grit is that resilience more often refers to the ability to bounce back from short-term struggles, while grit is the tendency to stick with something long-term, no matter how difficult it is or how many roadblocks you face.

It’s great to have both resilience and grit, but it’s clear that they refer to two different traits.


Mental Endurance: Yet Another Synonym?

Another construct that is similar to resilience is mental endurance. Mental endurance refers to the mental or inner strength that we use to deal with our challenges.

It requires willpower, self-discipline, and perseverance to develop and maintain mental endurance (Sasson, n.d.). Although it is not specific to “bouncing back” from trauma or adversity, it is related in the sense that both traits help us deal with difficulty in our lives.


What is the Meaning of Fortitude?

Finally, there’s fortitude—yet another word that is often used in tandem with or in lieu of “resilience.”

Merriam-Webster’s dictionary defines fortitude as “strength of mind that enables a person to encounter danger or bear pain or adversity with courage.”

This shares some obvious similarities with the other constructs mentioned above, namely mental toughness and mental endurance. All three are rooted in this idea of inner strength, a reserve of mental power that we can draw upon to get us through the most difficult times.


The Psychology of Mental Strength

Although you might read about resilience (and all of the many, many traits related to it) and think that it applies to only the most inspiring, impressive, and awesome among us, resilience is surprisingly common. As the APA Help Center’s (n.d.) piece on resilience states, “Research has shown that resilience is ordinary, not extraordinary. People commonly demonstrate resilience.”

Resilience isn’t about floating through life on a breeze, or skating by all of life’s many challenges unscathed; rather, it’s about experiencing all of the negative, difficult, and distressing events that life throws at you and staying on task, optimistic, and high-functioning. In fact, developing resilience basically requires emotional distress. If we never ran into disappointment in the first place, we would never learn how to deal with it.

When you think about it in those terms, it’s easy to see that we all display some pretty impressive resilience. Some of us are more resilient than others, but we have all been knocked down, defeated, and despondent at some point in our lives; however, we kept going—and here we are today, stronger and more experienced.


Demonstrating Resilience as an Individual

So what does it look like to demonstrate resilience?

The APA outlines a number of factors that contribute to and act as markers of resilience, including:

  • The capacity to make realistic plans and take steps to carry them out.
  • A positive view of yourself and confidence in your strengths and abilities.
  • Skills in communication and problem-solving.
  • The capacity to manage strong feelings and impulses (APA Help Center n.d.).

Author and resilience expert Glenn Schiraldi (2017) provides even more examples and characteristics of resilient people, listing strengths, traits, and coping mechanisms that are highly correlated with resilience:

  1. Sense of autonomy (having appropriate separation or independence from family dysfunction; being self-sufficient; being determined to be different—perhaps leaving an abusive home; being self-protecting; having goals to build a better life)
  2. Calm under pressure (equanimity, the ability to regulate stress levels)
  3. Rational thought process
  4. Self-esteem
  5. Optimism
  6. Happiness and emotional intelligence
  7. Meaning and purpose (believing your life matters)
  8. Humor
  9. Altruism (learned helpfulness), love, and compassion

In addition, these characteristics are also mentioned by Glenn Schiraldi:

  1. Character (integrity, moral strength)
  2. Curiosity (which is related to focus and interested engagement)
  3. Balance (engagement in a wide range of activities, such as hobbies, educational pursuits, jobs, social and cultural pastimes)
  4. Sociability and social competence (getting along, using bonding skills, being willing to seek out and commit to relationships, enjoying interdependence)
  5. Adaptability (having persistence, confidence, and flexibility; accepting what can’t be controlled; using creative problem-solving skills and active coping strategies)
  6. Intrinsic religious faith
  7. A long view of suffering
  8. Good health habits (getting sufficient sleep, nutrition, and exercise; not using alcohol or other substances immoderately; not using tobacco at all; maintaining good personal appearance and hygiene)

To summarize, if a person has awareness (both of the self and of the environment around them), they manage their feelings effectively, keep a handle on their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and understand that life has its inevitable ups and downs.


Why is Being Resilient so Important?

You hear a lot about growing and developing resilience – both in ourselves and in children – for good reason.

Therapist and counselor Joshua Miles lists a few of the wide range of reasons that resilience is a great trait to have:

  • Greater resilience leads to improved learning and academic achievement.
  • Resilience is related to lower absences from work or school due to sickness.
  • It contributes to reduced risk-taking behaviors including excessive drinking, smoking, and use of drugs.
  • Those with greater resilience tend to be more involved in the community and/or family activities.
  • Higher resilience is related to a lower rate of mortality and increased physical health (2015).


The Effects of Psychological Strength on Overall Health

Although every point in that list is a good reason to pay attention to resilience, the last one may be most important of all. Resilience has a powerful impact on our health (and vice versa, in some ways).

A recent review of the research on resilience suggested that resilience leads or contributes to many different positive health outcomes, including:

  • The experience of more positive emotions and better regulation of negative emotions
  • Less depressive symptoms
  • Greater resistance to stress
  • Better coping with stress, through enhanced problem-solving, a positive orientation, and re-evaluation of stressors
  • Successful aging and improved sense of well-being despite age-related challenges
  • Better recovery after a spinal cord injury
  • Better management of PTSD symptoms (Khosla, 2017).

Further, resilience experts Harry Mills and Mark Dombeck point to research that resilience boosts immune system functioning. Resilient people are able to better manage negative emotions and experience more positive emotions, which leads to objectively good health outcomes like more immune system cells and better immune functioning in cancer patients, and more favorable mortality rates in marrow transplant patients (n.d.).


Growing Mentally Strong as a Person

Learning Resilience
Photo by Audi Nissen on Unsplash

Since we know that being resilient is such a helpful trait to have, the next logical question is: How do we develop it?

Luckily, resilience is not an immutable, “you have it or you don’t” sort of trait. There may be a genetic component to a person’s base level of resilience, but you are always able to improve upon the resilience you have.

This add-on resilience is often referred to as “self-learned resilience.”


How Self-Learned Resilience Works

Self-learned resilience, as the name implies, is the resilience that you build up in yourself through concerted effort. It is the result of being aware of the opportunities for self-development and the courage to take advantage of them.

There are many ways to build up your own reserve of self-learned resilience. Below are just a few ways to go about it from three different sources.

From Dr. Carine Nzodom on using a loss or stressful event to grow:

  1. Allow yourself to feel a wide range of emotions.
  2. Identify your support system and let them be there for you.
  3. Process your emotions with the help of a therapist.
  4. Be mindful of your wellness and self-care.
  5. Get some rest or try to get an adequate amount of sleep.
  6. Try your best to maintain a routine.
  7. Write about your experience and share it with others (2017).

From VeryWell Mind author Kendra Cherry:

  1. Find a sense of purpose in your life, which will help boost you up on difficult days.
  2. Build positive beliefs in your abilities to help you increase your self-esteem.
  3. Develop a strong social network of people who support you and who you can confide in.
  4. Embrace change as the inevitability that it is, and be ready for it.
  5. Be optimistic—you don’t need to ignore your problems, just understand that it’s all temporary and that you have what it takes to make it through.
  6. Nurture yourself with healthy, positive self-care—get enough sleep, eat well, and exercise.
  7. Develop your problem-solving skills through strategies like making a list of potential ways to solve your current problem.
  8. Establish reasonable goals by brainstorming solutions and breaking them down into manageable steps.
  9. Take action to solve problems rather than waiting for the problem to solve itself.

And remember: Keep working on your skills and don’t get discouraged if it takes a while to get to the level of resilience you desire (Cherry, 2018).

From Kira M. Newman at the University of California at Berkeley’s Greater Good Science Center:

  1. Change the narrative by free writing about the issue or deciding to focus on the positives.
  2. Face your fears and challenge yourself; expose yourself to things that scare you in increasingly larger doses.
  3. Practice self-compassion; try to be mindful, remind yourself that you’re not alone, and be kind to yourself.
  4. Meditate and practice mindfulness; the Body Scan is a good way to work on your meditation and mindfulness skills.
  5. Cultivate forgiveness by letting go of grudges and letting yourself off the hook (2016).


Raising Children to Be Resilient

If you’re a parent or a dedicated teacher or another important adult in a child’s life, you might be wondering what you can do now to help your child grow up with resilience.

The American Psychological Association has some excellent tips and techniques on encouraging resilience in the children in your life. Give these ideas a try:

  1. Help your child make connections with others to help them build empathy, grow their support network, and encourage resilience.

  2. Encourage your child to help others, which can help them feel empowered.

  3. Maintain a daily routine to give young children a sense of safety and structure in their lives, and encourage them to develop their own routines.

  4. Take a break, and teach your child how to take a break; show him or her that excessive worrying is unproductive and can be harmful, and encourage him or her to set aside what they are worried about at least once in a while.

  5. Teach your child self-care, including eating healthy, exercising, getting a good amount of sleep, and having downtime to just relax and have fun.

  6. Help your child set reasonable goals and move toward them, one step at a time; this will help him or her to focus on what they have accomplished rather than what they haven’t accomplished.

  7. Nurture a positive self-view in your child by reminding him or her of the ways he or she has successfully handled difficulties and hardships in the past, and connect their past success with their future potential.

  8. Help your child keep things in perspective and encourage a long-term view—especially when he or she is stuck on something negative right now.

  9. Look for opportunities for self-discovery for your child, and show him or her how to do the same.

Last but not the least, teach your child to accept that change is an inevitable part of living, and that we can always replace goals that have become unattainable with new, more relevant goals (APA Help Center, n.d.).


Resilience Training

Besides self-learned resilience and teaching resilience to kids, you might want to take it even further and sign up for a course. A highly recommended course is the Realizing Resilience Masterclass which will improve your own resilience skills, but also equip you to coach others in resilience.

Complete with 6 modules and a certificate upon completion, this course will help you be an excellent teacher, parent, coach or even a great friend, able to bounce back despite the challenges in life.


10 Quotes on Resilience

If you want to get a better handle on resilience or share your insights with others, you might find one or more of these quotes can help you reach your goals.

“The human capacity for burden is like bamboo—far more flexible than you’d ever believe at first glance.”

Jodi Picoult

Jodi Picoult Quote on Resilience

“It’s your reaction to adversity, not adversity itself that determines how your life’s story will develop.”

Dieter F. Uchtdorf

Dieter F Uchtdorf Quote on Resilience

“The difference between a strong man and a weak one is that the former does not give up after a defeat.”

Woodrow Wilson

Quote on Resilience by Woodrow Wilson

“Although the world is full of suffering, it is also full of the overcoming of it.”

Hellen Keller

Hellen Keller Quote on Resilience

“The oak fought the wind and was broken, the willow bent when it must and survived.”

Robert Jordan

Resilience Quote from Robert Jordan

“If your heart is broken, make art with the pieces.”

Shane Koyczan

Shane Koyczan Quote on Resilience

“Resilience is accepting your new reality, even if it’s less good than the one you had before. You can fight it, you can do nothing but scream about what you’ve lost, or you can accept that and try to put together something that’s good.”

Elizabeth Edwards

Quote on Resilience by Elizabeth Edwards

“No matter how much falls on us, we keep plowing ahead. That’s the only way to keep the roads clear.”

Greg Kincaid

Greg Kincaid Quote on Resilience

“Resilience is knowing that you are the only one that has the power and the responsibility to pick yourself up.”

Mary Holloway

Mary Holloway Quote on Resilience

“Life doesn’t get easier or more forgiving, we get stronger and more resilient.”

Steve Maraboli

Steve Maraboli Quote on Resilience


A Take-Home Message

You probably already knew that resilience is an important trait to have, but this piece stressed another important concept: that you have the power to build your own resilience (and to help the children in your life develop resilience).

We so often forget about how much power we have over our lives and our circumstances. I hope this piece has reminded you that you do indeed have the power to improve your resilience and build your competence and confidence in yourself.

What are your thoughts on resilience? Do you think any of the related concepts are more important to develop? Are you not convinced that resilience is as vital as everyone says? What do you do to build your own resilience? Let us know in the comments section below!

Thanks for reading!

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Resilience Exercises for free.

If you wish to learn more, our Realizing Resilience Masterclass© is a complete, science-based, 6-module resilience training template for practitioners that contains all the materials you’ll need to help your clients overcome adversity in a more resilient way.

  • APA Help Center. (n.d.). Resilience guide for parents & teachers. American Psychological Association Help Center. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/resilience.aspx
  • Building Learning Power. (n.d.). Sorting out resilience, perseverance and grit. TLO Limited. Retrieved from https://www.buildinglearningpower.com/2015/11/sorting-out-resilience-perseverance-and-grit/
  • Cherry, K. (2018). 10 ways to improve your resilience. VeryWell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/ways-to-become-more-resilient-2795063
  • Khosla, M. (2017). Resilience and health: Implications for interventions and policy making. Psychological Studies, 3, 233-240.
  • Miles, J. (2015). The importance of building resilience. Counselling Directory. Retrieved from https://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/the-importance-of-building-resilience
  • Mills, H., & Dombeck, M. (n.d.). Resilience: Physical health benefits. Recovery Brands LLC. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/resilience-physical-health-benefits/
  • Newman, K. M. (2016). Five science-backed strategies to build resilience. Greater Good Science Center. Retrieved from https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/five_science_backed_strategies_to_build_resilience
  • Nzodom, C. M. (2017). Resilience can’t be taught—but it can be learned. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/residents-blog/resilience-cant-be-taught-it-can-be-learned
  • Sasson, R. (n.d.). How to develop mental endurance and strength. Success Consciousness. Retrieved from https://www.successconsciousness.com/develop-mental-endurance.html
  • Schiraldi, G. (2017). What do resilient people look like? New Harbinger Publications. Retrieved from https://www.newharbinger.com/blog/what-do-resilient-people-look
  • Strycharczyk, D. (2015, July 31). Resilience and mental toughness: Is there a difference and does it matter? Retrieved from https://www.koganpage.com/article/resilience-and-mental-toughness-is-there-a-difference-and-does-it-matter

About the Author

Courtney Ackerman, MA, is a graduate of the positive organizational psychology and evaluation program at Claremont Graduate University. She is currently working as a researcher for the State of California and her professional interests include survey research, wellbeing in the workplace, and compassion.


  1. ann peterson

    i found reading this page intriguing and helpful
    it is amazing how so much can go on with just one word

  2. Rahul Bhasin

    The article is very useful for the self discovery of innerself and also teach the points to help children to be resilient.

  3. Amal

    Great& different view of resilience..
    Thanks a lot..

  4. penny

    Hi.when was this first written, need to reference – thku

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Penny,

      This article was first published on the 3rd of January, 2019 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  5. Vital

    A very nice article that inspire me a lot.thanks for sharing.

  6. Abraham Davis

    I really like this article. Have you read How to Thrive by Building Resilience by del Amo Perez de Lara? I enjoyed the exercises for parents to do so we can pass them onto our kids. I also liked Habits of a Happy Brain by Graziano Breuning.

  7. Nyoman Suardana

    very nice topic and very useful

    • Vital

      Very good article. Thanks for sharing.

      • Iqbal

        A well researched article

  8. I Nengah Kardana

    Thank you for sharing a very useful lesson for my life

  9. Sukadana W

    Good and useful learning for our life and at work

  10. I Ketut Suama

    A very nice topic that make me wake up and feel stronger to welcome new normal

  11. I Nyoman sudarma

    Very nice topic that make me feel stronger, wake up and ready for moving forward

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi I Nyoman,
      Glad you enjoyed the read. If you’d like more resources to work on your resilience, we offer a free pack of 3 resilience exercises that you may find useful here.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  12. Gayle Treece

    This is one of the best written articles, if not the best, on the topic of Resilence that I’ve read. This is a tough one to dissect but this thinking does it justice. Thank you for being so thorough.

  13. Selina Nyarai

    This article has been very helpful in highlighting and putting into words sone of the experiences I have had and how I came through them. Things like a support system, which I probably thought was just me sharing my situation with certain people because well they are there, yet it was actually my subconscious actually identifying, screening if you like, whom it was safe to share with and who would stand by me no matter what.
    I’m greatly encouraged that though I’m not where I want to be yet, I am making a lot of steps in the right direction. I will definitely share this article with my friends and especially my children who are now young adults! Thank you!

  14. Consuelo Benavides-Martinez

    What a remarkable piece of the puzzle. I thank you and will pass this on..

  15. Asha

    I really love to read this inspiring article about resilience. Resilience helps depressive people to come back and realise their skills and abilities to solve their problems.

  16. Rumbidzai Gracious Rusike

    I liked the article. It does remind me more of my mom and myself. One can be resilient with self-determination and the will power to live and be a better person with each coming life challenges. Thank you for sharing this. I will definitely try and use it in my practice.

  17. Mathew Puthumana

    Resilience is necessary for every Counselors. Firstly Counselor wants to be more powerful and mentally stable. Then only Counselor learn and inter vain the client ‘s case properly. This article is very relevant.

  18. Anonymous

    I think everything I deal with on an everyday basis of what other people do or say to you or someone else. And then have to deal with it is away of having resilience

  19. John

    Great insight Courtney! Thank for this thoughtful and insightful article.

  20. Paul Certified Life Coach SoFla USA

    One of the best articles for true tools that I have read.

    • Rahul

      Truly insightful and leads to a more adaptive and healthy life for sure. Many Thanks.

  21. Peter Prieto

    Resilience cannot be measured or compared to other abstract concepts for the sake of measuring it. It is not an end result of surviving, but the process in which the survival is attained. For example, whether learned or lived, there is only one form of true resilience, it is a process. It is a state of mind like every other state of mind, it needs to be actively engaged and trained, because the skills are perishable if not practiced on a regular basis. Is there really such a trait or human quality that can be predicted, measured, prepared like a machine to react in a certain vulnerable free manner in a moment’s notice? I think not.

    • Ruben Minor

      I must admit, while I know I possess resilience based on my past experiences and traumas and dramas of my life, it was exceptionally refreshing to read through this article, and the quotes that came after so to remind myself that forward movement is a must and that It is ok to feel the full range of emotions of the loss I recently experienced and to use this as an opportunity to build upon my resilience and “grit!” Things will get better and I’m in charge of just how much!


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