What is the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule? (PANAS)

positive and negative effect scheduleThe Positive and Negative Affect Schedule or (PANAS) is a scale that consists of different words that describe feelings and emotions. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

One of these scales measures positive affect, and the other measures negative affect.

Positive affect refers to the propensity to experience positive emotions and interact with others positively, even through the challenges of life.

Negative affect, on the other hand, involves experiencing the world in a more negative way.

This might also occur if you tend to feel negative emotions and act more negatively within your relationships or your surroundings.

While these two states are on opposite ends of the spectrum, both states affect our lives and how we live.

In this article, we will review the idea of Positive and Negative Affect in terms of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule or PANAS.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Emotional Intelligence Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will not only enhance your ability to understand and work with your emotions but will also give you the tools to foster the emotional intelligence of your clients, students, or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

What is the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule?

There are many self-reported measures available to help practitioners identify client strengths and symptoms of wellbeing. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

Many of these measures are quick to administer and score and available online. Some of the instruments available measure things like character strengths, life satisfaction, positive emotions, and even coping skills. The PANAS measures positive and negative affect.

The PANAS has been widely utilized as a self-reported measure of affect in both the community and clinical contexts. (Merz et al., 2013).

It is used as a psychometric scale that is intended to show the relationship between positive and negative affect within certain personality traits.

When using the PANAS, participants gauge their feelings and respond via a questionnaire with 20 items. A 5-point Likert scale is then used for scoring.

Clinical studies, as well as non-clinical ones, have found PANAS to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for gauging positive and negative affect. (Merz et al., 2013).

The PANAS was developed in 1988 by psychologists David Watson, Lee Anna Clark, and Auke Tellegen. (Mulder, P., 2018).

The scale intends to measure someone’s positive and negative affect and how a person is feeling at the moment.

What Does it Measure Exactly?

The term affect is a very fancy way of talking about emotions and expressions. It refers to the emotions or feelings that you might experience and display, in terms of how these emotions influence you to act and make decisions.

Positive affectivity refers to positive emotions and expressions such as joy, cheerfulness, or even contentment.

Negative affectivity, on the other hand, refers to negative emotions and expressions such as anger, fear, or sadness.

We often assume that these two things are on opposite ends of the scale, but that is not necessarily so.

For example, you might feel positive affect toward a friend who recently got promoted, but at the same time feel some degree of negative affect because of jealousy.

The PANAS measures both positive and negative emotions for clients from week-to-week as they engage in everyday life. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

It can also be used as a tool for charting the immediate effects of therapy as well as any outcomes associated with positive psychological exercises, interventions or activities.

The scale is sensitive to momentary changes in affect when clients are directed to complete the form based on their affect at the present moment.

Participants utilizing PANAS use a 5-point scale in which they determine if a concept applies. (Mulder, P., 2018).

  1. Very Slightly or Not at All.
  2. A Little.
  3. Moderately.
  4. Quite a Bit.
  5. Extremely.

The final score is derived out of the sum of the ten items on both the positive and negative side.

The PANAS is designed around 20 items of affect. The scale is comprised of several words that describe different emotions and feelings. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

Clients are instructed to read each item and then list the number from the scale next to each word.

The intent is to indicate to what extent they feel these emotions at the moment or how they felt over the past week. Terms used in the scale are as follows (underlined items are emotions that display positive affect):

  1. Interested
  2. Distressed
  3. Excited
  4. Upset
  5. Strong
  6. Guilty
  7. Scared
  8. Hostile
  9. Enthusiastic
  10. Proud
  11. Irritable
  12. Alert
  13. Ashamed
  14. Inspired
  15. Nervous
  16. Determined
  17. Attentive
  18. Jittery
  19. Active
  20. Afraid

Scores can range from 10-50 for both the Positive and Negative Affect with the lower scores representing lower levels of Positive/Negative Affect and higher scores representing higher levels of Positive/Negative Affect. (Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegan, A., 1988).

A Look at the Validity

The PANAS displays a very good internal reliability that is consistent with scores ranging from 0.86 to 0.90 for PA and 0.84 to 0.87 for NA. (Magyar-Moe, 2009)

This level of consistency is found no matter what time instruction is utilized. Test-reliability was found to be good, over a timeframe of 8 weeks.

The reliability of the test seems to be a little higher as the time frame lengthens and when used with instructions such as right now or over the past week.

Convergent validity was found between the Positive Affect subscale of the PANAS and measures of social activity and diurnal variation in mood.

Discriminant validity was found between the Positive Affect subscale and measures of stress, aversive events, dysfunction, depression, and general distress.

The opposite was true for the Negative Affect subscales. Convergent validity was established between Negative Affect and measures of stress, aversive events, depression, and general distress and dysfunction, and discriminant validity with measures of social activity and diurnal variation in mood (Watson et al., 1988).

According to Watson & Clark (1999), PANAS-X scales, a more developed and refined version of the test, can be used validly to assess long-term individual differences in affect. Further observations showed that PANAS-X scales are:

  • Stable over time.
  • Show significant convergent and discriminate validity when correlated with peer-judgments.
  • Highly correlated with corresponding measures of aggregated state affect.
  • Strongly and systematically related to measures of personality and emotionality.

What Versions of the Scale Are There?

Additional versions of the PANAS scale have been created over time. (Mulder, P., 2018). A few of these are:

  1. PANAS-C
  2. PANAS-SF
  3. I-PANAS-SF
  4. PANAS-X

PANAS-C is the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children. Practitioners who work with school-age children utilize it. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

This test is designed to make it simpler for children to differentiate different emotional expressions and was created as a tool to help gauge children’s moods.

PANAS-SF or short form is a more concise version of the original measurement.

I-PANAS-SF is a short form and an international version. It is designed for use by different nationalities. The assessment also has fewer ambiguities or less room for misinterpretations.

PANAS-X is a much more refined version of the test, developed in 1994 by Watson and Clark. On a positive note, this version of the assessment can be completed in much less time, approximately 10 minutes.

It is split into three main sections:

  1. The first section contains some basic negative emotions, such as guilt, sadness, and fear.
  2. The second section contains positive emotions, such as self-assurance, attentiveness, and joviality.
  3. The third section involves other affective states such as surprise, serenity, and shyness, for example.

This version is meant as a tool to provide insight into the varying emotional states people often find themselves in.

Common Criticisms

The PANAS has been found to be sensitive to fluctuations in mood. (Magyar-Moe, J. L. (2009, June 25).

Since the scale is self-reported, that can also make it more challenging to accurately assess a person’s state of mind because measuring something like this tends to be subjective.

A multitude of studies has shown that PANAS has good properties, on a psychometric basis. However, some issues remain.

Watson et al. found that both PA and NA are independent. However, some of the findings about this association are inconsistent.

In one study, Caucasians displayed either zero or negative correlations between Positive Affect and Negative Affect.

On the other hand, a positive correlation between the two was reported for the Japanese version. (Lim, Yu, Kim & Kim, 2010).

As a result of this information, we might surmise that the possible associations between PA and NA may vary depending on cultural diversity.

According to Crawford & Henry (2010), the PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, however, the hypothesis of complete independence between Positive and Negative Affect must be rejected.

Where Can You Find the Questionnaire?

The questionnaire can be found in many places from the American Psychological Association website, toolshero.com to several academic and psychological sources.

PANAS Questionnaire Template

The following template is indicative of the typical PANAS template. (Magyar-Moe, 2009).

One would begin by first selecting a timespan before filling in the scores.

Time Instructions

Different time instructions can be used when facilitating this scale. One would begin by marking the appropriate option that they are applying for the test:

  • Moment (you feel this way right now)
  • Today (you have felt this way today)
  • Past few days (you have felt this way during the past few days)
  • Week (you have felt this way during the past week)
  • Past few weeks (you have felt this way during the past few weeks)
  • Year (you have felt this way during the past year)
  • General (you generally feel this way)

Clients are then instructed to read each item and gauge how they are feeling by choosing a number from the Likert scale.

The intent is to indicate to what extent they feel these emotions at the moment or how they felt in the past week.

Scale & Scorecard

1 2 3 4 5
Very slightly or not at all A little Moderately Quite a bit Extremely
# Score Feelings/emotions
1 Interested
2 Distressed
3 Excited
4 Upset
5 Strong
6 Guilty
7 Scared
8 Hostile
9 Enthusiastic
10 Proud
11 Irritable
12 Alert
13 Ashamed
14 Inspired
15 Nervous
16 Determined
17 Attentive
18 Jittery
19 Active
20 Afraid

Scoring instructions

To score the Positive Affect, one would add up the scores on lines 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17 & 19.

Scores may range anywhere from 10 – 50. Higher scores represent higher levels of positive affect. Mean scores: momentary = 29.7 and weekly = 33.3 (Hudeck, 2016).

To score the Negative Affect, one would add up the scores on items 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18 & 20.

Scores may range anywhere from 10 – 50. Higher scores represent higher levels of negative affect. Mean scores: momentary = 14.8 and weekly = 17.4 (Hudeck, 2016).

A Take Home Message

PANAS relies on self-reported measures, which are, of course, subjective. As a result, one might either overestimate or underestimate their moods and feelings.

Positive Affect is something that can be developed and cultivated. Some believe that the idea of affectivity is inborn, meaning that you may have a propensity to be in a good mood, or the propensity to be in a bad mood continually.

If that trait applies to you, you can take steps to change your mood by engaging in positive activities like journaling, doing hobbies, expressing gratitude, and even indulging in life’s little pleasures.

The more you practice having something like Positive Affect, the more it will become your standard way of thinking.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Emotional Intelligence Exercises for free.

References

  • Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2010, December 24). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample – Crawford – 2004 – British Journal of Clinical Psychology – Wiley Online Library. Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1348/0144665031752934
  • Hudeck, A. V. (2016). The effects of mindfulness meditation on electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry (Honors thesis). Bowling Green State University, Ohio.
  • Laurent, V., Loisel, T. P., Harbeck, B., Wehman, A., Gröbe, L., Jockusch, B. M., . . . Carlier, M. F. (1999, March 22). Role of proteins of the Ena/VASP family in actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes. Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10087267
  • Lim, Y., Yu, B., Kim, D., & Kim, J. (2010, September). The positive and negative affect schedule: Psychometric properties of the korean version. Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947803/
  • Magyar-Moe, J. L. (2009, June 25). Positive Psychological Tests and Measures. Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123745170000036
  • Merz, E. L., Malcarne, V. L., Roesch, S. C., Ko, C. M., Emerson, M., Roma, V. G., & Sadler, G. R. (2013). Psychometric properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) original and short forms in an African American community sample. Journal of affective disorders, 151(3), 942–949.
  • Mulder, P. (2018). PANAS Scale. Retrieved [insert date] from ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/personal-happiness/panas-scale/
  • PANAS Scale / Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. (2018, July 18). Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/personal-happiness/panas-scale/
  • Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/positive-and-negative-affect-schedule
  • Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.statisticssolutions.com/positive-and-negative-affect-schedule-panas/
  • Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). (2017, March 30). Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/health-happiness/positive-and-negative-affect-schedule/
  • Watson D, Clark LA. Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychol Bull. 1984;96:465–490.
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegan, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 106
  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. (1999, August). The PANAS-X Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect … Retrieved from http://www2.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/Clark/PANAS-X.pdf
  • What is Positive and Negative Affect in Psychology? Definitions Scale. (2019, June 19). Retrieved June 28, 2019, from https://positivepsychology.com/positive-negative-affect/

Comments

What our readers think

  1. Ally

    Hi I have a study about how mood can influence impulsive shopping and i want to know if I could use the PANAS on knowing their mood while impulsively shopping instead of using a time frame??
    And if we could, should we contact the authors for permission??
    Thanks

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ally,

      Sounds like interesting research. It sounds like you could use the PANAS for this, yes. And no, the PANAS is free to use for research purposes without permission from the authors.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  2. Daisy

    Hi !
    Can I add up the total score (include the positive and negative)of this questionnaire to present the overall emotional level ?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Daisy,

      No, the creators recommend scoring the positive and negative affect subscales separately. Take a look at Table 2 of this document for the general positive and general negative affect items. Totals and means for each of these should be scored separately.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  3. Ramanjit Garewal

    Dear Nicole…

    I greatly appreciated the write up…

    More than that I appreciated your prompt… detailed and incisive responses to the queries…

    I have completed a Masters in Philosophy…

    Presently I am pursuing a Masters in Yoga…

    The topic for my Dissertation is Yoga and Happiness…

    I will be grateful for your guidance as to which scale I should use for measuring Happiness and how to adapt it to Yoga and any other Resource Materials you may suggest…

    I will be further grateful in case you provide me with the relevant links…

    Do I have to make any payments for the Resource Materials or are the freely available in the public domain…

    Tumhara das…

    Blessings…

    Hugs…

    Love…

    …Jai Shree Ram…

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ramanjit,

      Thank you for your kind words — it’s my pleasure to help 🙂

      Sounds like interesting research you’re doing. One of the most widely used measures of subjective happiness is that by Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999). It’s freely available to use for research. You can access the items here.

      Whether or not you need to adapt it would depend on the specific of your research design. E.g., if you were using a yoga intervention spanning eight weeks, you might want to include a lead-in to the items that invites the respondent to think specifically about their happiness over the last eight weeks.

      You might also want to consider a subjective or psychological well-being scale. See these articles for more on these.

      https://positivepsychology.com/subjective-well-being/
      https://positivepsychology.com/ryff-scale-psychological-wellbeing/

      Hope these ideas help!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Ramanjit Garewal

        …Jai Shree Ram…

        Dear Nicole…

        First and foremost my apologies for posting the message twice over…

        It only happened because my original message and your reply were not showing …

        As soon as I posted them your reply became visible

        Kindly delete them if possible…

        Deeply grateful for your prompt and detailed reply…

        For your valuable and guidance…

        Thank you so much…

        Tumhara das…

        Blessings…

        Hugs…

        Love…

        Reply
  4. miro

    Hi, I’m doing our thesis right now and I wanted to use the questionnaire PANAS , however I’m not sure what version should I use as well I don’t understand how to score and interpret it.

    will you please help me?

    details:
    I’m studying Toxic positivity and I wanted to use panas to determine what’s the higher affect perceived by the College student.

    Thank you for your time

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Miro,

      If you’re not limited by space restrictions in your survey, I’d suggest using the PANAS-X. You can find a word document download of the tool here. If you’re not interested in the specific emotions like serenity, hostility, etc. You may choose to just administer the General Negative Affect and General Positive Affect subscales.

      As for scoring and interpretation, I don’t believe the authors have published cut-offs for high, medium, and low score interpretations. However, if you were looking for population norms to compare your sample against, you could use those published in Crawford & Henry (2010).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  5. Sayna

    Hi ,
    Can you please guide me if I-PANAS-SF can be used for state anxiety or not? and Can we use PANAS-SF internationally for state anxiety test and a valid source for obtaining it. ?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Sayna,

      I wouldn’t recommend this scale to assess state anxiety as it is quite short and appears designed just to capture the higher-level constructs of positive and negative affect. I’d suggest taking a look at Warr et al’s (2013) four-quadrant affect scale for something structured similarly to PANAS but that splits negative affect into high (anxious) and low activation (depressed). You can use this scale for research purposes without permission from the authors.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  6. hani

    Hi
    my thesis on mirroring activity and social interaction among adults help me out about scales used to measure social interaction and mirroring activity.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Hani,

      I’m not sure I’m aware of a scale that assesses mirroring behavior in social interactions as I think this tends to be captured using observation (or neuroimaging) rather than self-report. As for ‘social interaction’ could you let me know specifically what aspects of social interaction you’re looking to assess?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  7. Rodginie Dorcent

    Hello,
    Thank you for this article, it helps me a lot. I’ve also read all the comments. I want to verify that I really understand some points of the discussion.
    I am currently working on a study proposal about “activism, student’s protest in Haiti”. I would like to use I-PANAS-SF to assess Positive and Negative Affect about participation or non-participation at protests, or related to activist behaviors. However, the timing could be a problem since I am addressing student to answer based on “their last participation” or non participation at student protest or related to their activism behaviors in general. It seems that it possible but I still feel a little it unconfutable about that. What do you think?

    Reply
    • Rodginie Dorcent

      For the same case is PANAS (20 items) still applicable?

      Reply
      • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

        Hi Rodginie,

        And yes, items measuring affect, such as the PANAS, can be applied to a wide range of research contexts.

        – Nicole | Community Manager

        Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Rodginie,

      Glad you found the article helpful. It’s common practice in research to present lead-ins to questions that ask the respondent to reflect on a particular time period or domain in their response. For instance, you could present a lead-in to the questions like, “Think about the last time you participated in XYZ and indicate the degree to which you felt each of the following emotions…”

      Hope that helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  8. JAMES FADIMAN

    Have there been any studies using PANAS to determine the effectiveness or effect sor anything related to the use SSRIs? Thanky ou and thanky ou for answering so many questions so fully.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi James,

      Yes, the PANAS is widely used to measure affect for a range of studies on mood and emotions, including those that involve interventions with SSRIs. For an example, see Furlan et al. (2004).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  9. Elena Lāsma Tamsone

    Hi,
    I am a medical student and I want to do research on the well-being of medical staff. Can I use this PANAS scale for measuring the subjective well being of employees?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Elena,

      You could, but the PANAS is a measure of affect. Sometimes affect (e.g., positive emotional experiences) are measured as a proxy for subjective well-being, but if you’re specifically interested in subjective well-being, there are other scales that may be more suitable.

      You’ll find a review of different measurement scales you could use in our dedicated blog post.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  10. Urooba Shahzad

    Mam can i use this scale for research purpose as i am student of psychology. And want to assess the moods of parents. Kindly allow me to use this scale for research purpose.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Urooba,

      This scale is publicly available to use for research without permission from the creators, so feel free 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  11. Divya Baveja

    Hi

    I am a PhD scholar and plan to use PANAS SF in my work.
    I wished to ask if this scale requires permission to be used?
    It is freely available on APA and other websites but I am not sure if I can go ahead and use it without the permission.
    Requesting anyone to please guide?

    Thank You

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Divya,

      It’s freely available to use for research purposes without permission from the authors 🙂

      Best of luck with your research.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  12. Anya

    Hi! I am Psychology student and we are conducting a research. One of our instruments is I-PANAS-SF. We have been looking for a copy of the I-PANAS-SF but unfortunately, we couldn’t find one. I would like to ask some help. Thank you.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Anya,

      You’ll find the 10-item I-PANAS-SF in the appendix of this paper.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  13. nidhi

    hi!
    i am working on subjective wellbeing and my area is organizational behavior and human resource management. can i use this PANAS scale for measuring the subjective well being of employees?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Nidhi,

      Yes, the PANAS is suitable for use with samples of employees. However, it is considered a measure of affect, not SWB. For scales on SWB, check out our dedicated blog post.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Maryvic Manos

        Hello, may i ask if there’s any scales I can use for my study about the Emotional Well-being of teachers? I am a graduate student who is currently making a thesis about the emotional well-being of teachers during this pandemic and i am currently looking for a suitable scales that I can use for my study. I hope you can help me. Thank you!

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Maryvic,

          Sounds like interesting research! Perhaps take a look at Simsek’s (2011) emotional well-being scale for a scale capturing positive and negative emotional well-being.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  14. Anya

    Hi! Does I-PANAS-SF applicable for Asian participants?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Anya,

      Yes, the PANAS scales have been widely used with a broad range of populations around the world.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  15. Jean d’Amour MUZIKI

    Hey,
    May I get a PFD document of this article? “What is the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule? (PANAS)”
    Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jean,

      I’m afraid we don’t have an option to download this article as a PDF. However, if you scroll to the end of the post and respond positively to the question ‘How useful was this article to you?’ several sharing options will become available to you in case that’s helpful!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  16. Bobby

    Regarding the PANAS-X: How am I to adapt the scale to Qualtrics, necessarily changing the items’ visual organization, without invalidating it?

    The items on the PANAS-X are organized as a 15×4 grid rather than a single-column list.

    I understand that, for most (if not all) scales, the order of the questions has a significant impact on the scale’s reliability. One’s answer to item 1 will affect one’s answer to item 2, whose answer will affect one’s answer to item 3, and so on. If someone presents the questions in a different order, this sequence of affects will change as well and will possibly invalidate the whole thing.

    Is the same true with the PANAS-X scale? If one were to adapt the scale to, say, a Google Form, one would have to turn it into a single-column list of questions. Question 1, question 2, etc. It wouldn’t be possible to preserve the grid organization. How am I to choose the order of items in a way that won’t invalidate the results? Does such a way exist?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Bobby,

      I don’t believe it’s a requirement to present the items in a grid. For instance, take a look at the downloadable copy of the test available through MIDSS. This is a standard and appropriate way to present the items which could be replicated in Qualtrics.

      If you want to be really rigorous, you might set Qualtrics to randomly shuffle the order of the items? However, I’ve known many researchers to just present the items for the same subscale one after the other rather than shuffling them.

      Overall, the PANAS scales are pretty well-known for being psychometrically sound, so I’d be surprised if you came up against opposition (e.g., from journal reviewers) re: the ordering of their presentation.

      I hope this helps a little.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  17. Sayna

    How valid is I-PANAS-SF for perceived anxiety study and if yes where can I find its validity ?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Sanya,

      You can find the full development and validation information for I-PANAS-SF in Thompson (2007). In short, the measure has been shown to be psychometrically valid.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Sayna

        Thank you so much

        Reply
  18. Joshua

    Hi
    Thank you for the information regarding PANAS-X scale. But I have a question. I’m currently working on my thesis and I want to assess only joviality and sadness.

    In the PANAS-X manual, it is said that “Investigators facing more severe time constraints can select and assess only those scales that are most relevant to their research” (page 1).

    Does that mean I can only use the items in joviality (8 items) and sadness (5 items) without presenting the other items? If I can, do I need to pay attention to the item’s order/sequence? (because I’m going to use google form to hand out the scale)

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Joshua,

      You’re welcome! I’ll answer your second question first and say that if you want to be as rigorous as possible, it is usually good to randomize the display order of your questions. I.e., 50% of people respond to the joviality item first and the other half respond to the sadness item first. But if you are unable to do this, I don’t think an academic reviewer of your research would worry too much.

      Regarding your first question: It depends. If you are interested in the pure emotions of joviality and sadness (as opposed to positive affect and negative affect), presenting these single items will be fine. However, most would recommend presenting an absolute minimum of two items to assess a construct like positive/negative affect. Three for each construct would be even better as you can then also run reliability checks.

      Let me know if this helps 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  19. Put

    Hi!
    I’ll be using the PANAS-C-SF for my research and I am still confused with the scoring.
    – Does the scoring is only either high and low? is there medium in it?
    – Do we determine the high/low score by comparing it with the total mean score of our population?

    Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Put,

      It can be tricky to get this information about scoring interpretation sometimes. It tends to be more common for scales that are applied in clinical settings (e.g., the Beck Depression Inventory), but these cut-offs (e.g., for high, medium, and low levels of a variable) do not always exist outside of clinical settings. I’d say your best bet would be to reach out to the first author of the scale and see if they have any information on this.

      Info about the validation/creation of the PANAS-C-SF can be found here in Ebesutani et al. (2011). But yes, failing that, one option may be to look at the spread of responses in your sample and use information about standard deviations to determine some cut-offs.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Putri

        Hi Nicole, thank you for the reply and advice!
        Really appreciate it!

        Reply
  20. Gina

    Hello!
    Thank you very much for the explanation. I don’t clearly understand the difference between PANAS-S and PANAS-T. What is the difference between positive or negative trait or state affect?.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Gina,

      Could you please provide links to these two options? I’m aware of the PANAS-SF (short-form) and this PANAS-T but unsure these are the ones you’re referring to.

      Thanks!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  21. Ria

    Hi,

    I have used the PANAS for my research. What would be the best analysis to run for reporting the manipulation check through SPSS?

    Thank You!!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ria,

      The appropriate analysis technique will depend, but my sense is that it’s likely to be a t-test or an ANOVA (both of which you can easily run in SPSS). If you let me know a little more about your research design (and manipulation), I should be able to point you in the right direction 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Elliott D'Souza

        Hi Nicole,

        I am currently implementing PANAS in my thesis for my masters alongside a council project within care homes.

        I am trying to understand whether you finish with two variables or one? – one being positive affect and the other being negative affect e.g. 36 (positive) & 24 (negative)? OR, you find the difference between the two variables and finish with one complete variable for each participant? E.g. 36-24 = 12.

        Hope you can help!

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Elliott,

          You should have two separate final scores (one representing positive affect and one negative). It is generally not considered appropriate to find the difference between the two to arrive at a final total, as positive and negative affect are considered conceptually distinct.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  22. Lim Hor Yin

    Hello!
    Can i know how to get these
    Mean scores: momentary = 29.7 and weekly = 33.3?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Lim,

      Are you saying you need a citation for these means? If yes, the source is the thesis by Hudek (2016).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Vera

        Hello,
        I am using PANAS-X for my research study but I am not able to find the scoring procedure for it. The manual only gives the scoring of PANAS-F which has 20 items. There’s no scoring for the 60-item version?
        Please help me with this as soon as possible. It’s really urgent.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Vera,

          I’ve just found the manual for the PANAS-X here. Does this help?

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
          • Lindsay

            I have searched the article from Watson and Clark that you referenced. The reliability, and validation are there along with a description of how the scale was made, but I cannot see a section about scoring. Could you give a page number or specify a section please?
            I would specifically like to know which of the 11 sub-categories are scored as PA, and which as NA, or is it that you only use the 10 items for PA and NA respectively when scoring the “higher order” scales.

          • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

            Hi Lindsay,

            Do you mean the 11 scales below the general dimension scales listed in Table 2 of this document (e.g., fear, hostility, and so on)? If yes, these are separate from the general dimension scales and instead capture basic emotions. So yes, you should only use the ten listed items for PA and NA to assess general positive and negative affect.

            – Nicole | Community Manager

  23. Dominic

    Hello! I would like to record mental health with the PANAS in my study. Can I only look at the PA and NA subscales individually or can I calculate them together in one score?
    In one study I read that the sum of the negative affect is subtracted from the positive affect and then you have something like “emotional balance”.
    I would be very pleased to receive an answer!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Dominic,

      To get a holistic picture of mental health (operationalized as affect), I’d definitely suggest measuring both PA and NA (i.e., administering both subscales). As for subtracting NA from PA, I’m not sure if this would make sense, only because PA and NA are separate subscales measuring different emotional phenomena — could you share your source for this?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  24. Patrick

    Hello!

    In my studies I want to use the PANAS to operationalize „mental health“.

    Which subscale would you recommend (PA or NA)?
    Is it possible to create a global score?
    One paper wrote, that you can subtract the mean score from NA from PA…

    I would be happy, if you could help me

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Patrick,

      To get a holistic picture of mental health (operationalized as affect), I’d definitely suggest measuring both PA and NA (i.e., administering both subscales). As for subtracting NA from PA, I’m not sure if this would make sense, only because PA and NA are separate subscales measuring different emotional phenomena — could you share your source for this?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  25. Nix

    Hello, I am writing a paper on employee wellbeing in organizations and was considering using the PANAS positive and negative affect model as an indicator of wellbeing…can it be used in this way?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Nix,

      Yes, it’s not uncommon for scholars to use the PANAS (or the positive affect components at least) as indices of well-being, so I’d say you can 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  26. Adi

    Hi, I am currently making an academic paper about the PANAS scale and I was wondering whether there is a need for a required administrator who has qualifications to issue this test or is it accessible for anyone? And, are there any special testing conditions that must be considered? Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Adi,

      The PANAS scales are all publicly available and you don’t require any certification or training to administer them.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  27. Adrian

    Hi, I am currently making an academic paper about the PANAS scale and I was wondering whether there is a need for a required administrator who has qualifications to issue this test or is it accessible for anyone? And, are there any special testing conditions that must be considered? Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Adrian,

      No! The PANAS scales are all publicly available and you don’t require any certification or training to administer them. 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  28. VJ

    Hello, my group mates and I are currently conducting a research on the psychological impact of distance learning among veteran teachers. Would this scale be applicable to our study concerning veteran teachers’ feelings and emotions towards distance learning during the past year?
    Also, I would like to request for the name and email of the author who made the scale. We would like to ask for her permission on using the scale.
    Thank you very much.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi VJ,

      This scale is a good all-around measure for assessing affect according to the four quadrants. You can alter the lead-in to the items to capture the timeframe you are interested in (e.g., “Respond to the following items thinking about the time since you commenced distance learning,” or something like that). If you need to dig into specific emotions (e.g., loneliness or isolation stemming from the new learning environment perhaps), you may need more targeted scales.

      You can find the names of the authors and the original paper validating the scale here. It’s publicly available to use (for free) so you shouldn’t need the authors’ permission unless it is a requirement of your particular course.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  29. Samantha Lambart

    Hi there, how do I cite this article in APA style?

    Sammy x

    Reply
  30. sania

    hi my name is sania i am using panas SF in my research i am feeling difficulty in scoring can anyone help me in scoring 10 itmes PANAS

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Sania,

      You can find instructions on how to score the PANAS-SF at the bottom of this PDF.

      Hope this helps, and best of luck with your research!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Megan

        Hi Nicole, that PDF that you referenced is just the PANAS, not the PANAS-SF. It is my understanding that the “short form” version of the PANAS is the I-PANAS-SF and I cannot find any official scoring for it. If you know otherwise, please advise. Thanks!

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Megan,

          Ooh, you’re right! I get confused with the different versions of the PANAS. You’ll find the 10-item I-PANAS-SF in the appendix of this paper. To score it, it looks like you sum the responses for each of the two subscales and then divide by 5 for each. Not sure if you need this, but I don’t think this one of those scales where the authors provide cut-offs for high, medium, and low levels of PA and NA (if you need these sorts of population ‘norms’ you may need to contact the creators).

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  31. Val

    Hello,
    Wonderful article! Do you know where or what article I can see/read whether the instructions for the PANAS can differ for the individual administering it? Can the instructions for the PANAS-C be for the children to indicate emotional states in the present moment and not in the last few weeks? Thanks for any help!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Val,
      My understanding of the PANAS scales is that there is a lot of flexibility when it comes to the time instructions that precede the items. Instructions can range from being about how you feel “in general,” “over the past few weeks,” “today,” or “right now.” My sense is that whichever you choose will just depend on the time period of interest (according to this, PANAS scales seem to perform stably regardless of time instructions), and I’d feel confident that children would be able to respond to items regarding the present moment. I’d check the original validation paper to see whether the authors of the scale tested it out using different time scales if you’re interested.
      Hope this helps!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  32. Rain Histen

    Does the PANAS-SF measure neutral mood? Is is an effective measure for moods evoked my music. Thanks.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Rain,

      No, the PANAS-SF doesn’t capture neutral moods. I’d suggest checking out Yeo & Frederick’s (2011) Cognitive and Affective Regulation Scales, which capture tense arousal, hedonic tone and energetic activation on bipolar scales that include a neutral point. And yes! Generally these scales can be employed to assess affect felt during any activity.

      Hope this helps.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  33. Aqsa

    Hey, I am a student of Clinical Psychology and I am conducting research, and one of my variables is PANAS-SF. I have been looking for the author’s email address (P.Mulder’s) but I don’t seem to find it online. Kindly share with me the email address if possible. Plus, can you tell me if it’s available online and requires no permission?

    Reply
    • Annelé Venter

      Hi Aqsa
      Following the link mentioned in the reference section – https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/panas-scale/ – I saw the Author’s full name as Patty Mulder. I then did a further search and noted she is well presented online, and you can link with her via Linked-In. I am sure between all the mentions on Google, you will find a way to get in touch with her.

      Reply

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