What are Mental Health Theories? (Incl. List)

What are Mental Health TheoriesHave you ever met with a counselor or therapist and thought, “This is not a good fit?

It might have had something to do with the theories they use to inform their practice.

Counselors and therapists worldwide receive training about the theoretical underpinnings of mental health. They learn how to use those theories to support their work with clients. These professionals use diagnostic tools based on old and new theories of well-being.

What are these theories, and who created them? That is what you will learn as you continue reading.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values and self-compassion and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students or employees.

What are Mental Health Theories?

In the sciences, a theory is more than a simple guess. It is a “coherent group of propositions formulated to explain a group of facts or phenomena in the natural world and repeatedly confirmed through experiment or observation” (Dictionary.com, n.d.).

One could create theories about almost anything, but it is rigorous testing that distinguishes simple theories from scientific ones. Not all theories will survive this type of testing. In fact, the acceptance or rejection of parts of theories is not unusual.

Theories developed 50-100 years ago fall into six broad categories. They still influence us today. You might recognize them as:

  • Analytical/developmental (Freud, Jung, Erickson, Kohlberg)
  • Behavioral (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov)
  • Cognitive (Tolman, Piaget, Chomsky)
  • Social (Bandura, Lewin, Festinger)
  • Humanistic (Rogers and Maslow)
  • Personality (Erickson’s psychosocial development theory)

From these, many contemporary theories followed. Some are specific to a domain like development. Others make use of neuroimaging to explain why we do the things we do.

Mental health theories strive to explain human development behaviorally, psychologically, and socially. For many years, researchers focused on alleviating pain or suffering. The approach centered on what was wrong with a person and how to fix it. There was no assumption that a person could strengthen their well-being.

 

A Look at the Models and Methods

Mental health and well-being experts draw from other areas to inform their perspective.

They also review a person’s mental health within context. An act could be psychopathological in one cultural context but not in another.

The main areas from which counselors, psychologists, and psychiatrists gain understanding about mental health are (Dasgupta, 2013):

  • Spiritual – This approach explains who we are in the world and how we are to act. It also tells us what we can expect after death based on our actions. The spiritual perspective discusses good and evil as they relate to suffering.

  • Moral character – This perspective posits that there are certain virtues a person needs to learn. Doing so allows the individual to live a better life free from mental illness.

  • Statistical – Based on mathematics, this seeks to define what is ‘normal’ or ‘average’ for populations. Anyone falling outside of the norm is abnormal.

  • Disease/medical/biological (genetics, neuroimaging, neurobiology) – This approach explains mental health as it relates to changes in the brain. The well-known case of Phineas Gage is an example. A rod went through his left frontal lobe. This affected his personality and behavior. Before the accident, people enjoyed his company and thought he was reliable. After, they described him as ill-tempered, foul, and unreliable.

  • Psychological (psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, existential/humanistic) – Mental health develops along an expected path. People try to adjust to their environment to survive within it. Problems arise when a person learns maladaptive strategies as a response to new situations.

  • Social – Biology, psychology, and society all affect a person’s mental health. The influence of societal norms is important to the adaptive or maladaptive behavior of the individual.

  • Psychosocial (Social learning model) – Researchers in this area study the relationship between a person’s thoughts (psychological) and their social behavior. This includes the meaning a person gives to their psychological processes. According to Bandura, people learn through observation and modeling of other people’s behavior (McLeod, 2016).

  • Biopsychosocial – The interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors explains mental illness. This depends on the person and their environment.

 

Methods

The diagnosis and treatment of mental illness vary, but many therapists use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This tool provides clear definitions of and criteria for more than 265 disorders. Diagnosis usually includes a physical exam, including lab tests, and a psychological evaluation (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).

There are approximately 20 classes of mental illness covering everything from neurodevelopmental to paraphilic disorders.

Some treatment methods are medications, psychotherapy, brain-stimulation, hospital and residential treatment programs, and substance misuse treatment.

There are three ways to experience therapeutic intervention. Sometimes therapists use a combination of these. Each environment stresses confidentiality and creating a safe space for people to share.

  • Individual counseling – This is a one-one session with a trained counselor. Depending on the type of therapy used, these sessions can continue for months or years.
  • Group Counseling – People with similar challenges work together with a trained counselor. The goals are to talk about issues, share knowledge, and solutions.
  • Family therapy – This method involves helping a family improve their communication. Through the guidance of a licensed therapist, they learn conflict resolution techniques. Not every family member necessarily participates, and it is often short term.

 

Mental Health Counseling Theories

There are five schools of thought that attempt to explain mental health. Many therapists and counselors operate from one or two of these.

Theories guide the services and interactions therapists have with their clients. This is important to know because it can affect how well you and your therapist “click.”

The five schools of thought are:

  1. Behaviorism – Behavior is a result of life experiences, not the unconscious mind. We learn through our experiences with our environment. This approach is all about conditioning. It is present-focused.

  2. Biological – This is a medical model of treating mental disorders. The idea is that something physical is the cause of the mental illness. Symptoms are “outward signs of the inner physical disorder” (McLeod, 2018).

  3. Psychodynamic – Like behaviorism, psychodynamic therapists view behavior as a result of experiences. One of the differences, though is that their focus is on past experiences. They assert that unconscious forces drive people’s behavior. The client and therapist revisit explored ground to achieve more understanding. This therapeutic process can take many years.

  4. Cognitive – The emphasis of this theory is on thinking, not doing. A feedback loop exists between the person’s assumptions and attitudes, their resulting perceptions, and the conclusions drawn from them (Grace, n.d.). These therapists work to assist a person to change their thoughts. Doing this leads to a change in feeling and behavior.

  5. Humanistic – Three different therapies can help people achieve their highest potential. Client-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, allows the client to investigate who they are at their core. The therapist creates an environment of empathy, acceptance, and genuineness. This encourages the client in their self-exploration. Gestalt Therapy, created by Frederick Perls, is present-focused and involves role-playing. Existential therapy techniques is about ownership of one’s life, including all its mishaps. The responsibility of one’s life is one’s own.

It is easy to understand how a therapist influenced by one of these theories might interact with a client. Positive psychology practitioners, for example, primarily follow humanistic theories. One would expect this therapist to be empathetic and stress ownership and responsibility. The sessions would include a healthy dose of self-exploration, especially related to developing strengths.

 

A List of Popular Mental Health Theories

Every theory of mental health comes from one of the above five areas or a combination of them.

Here is a brief overview of theories derived from those broader categories.

Network theory explains that “mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms” (Borsboom, 2017). The biological, psychological, and societal influences facilitate the connection between Psychopathological symptoms.

Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT) focuses on assisting the person in changing destructive thoughts and behaviors. It is a type of psychotherapy that helps a client to quickly identify and manage problems. The approach is goal-oriented and often involves homework. The homework helps to reinforce the in-person sessions. It is the “gold standard in the psychotherapy field” (David, Cristea, & Hofmann, 2018).

Operant conditioning still is a popular approach. Whether used by therapists or physical trainers, it involves identifying the cue-routine-reward pattern. The goal is to change the person’s behavior by changing the routine and sometimes the reward. It is often used in the treatment of OCD through exposure therapy.

Exposure therapy allows the person to engage with the source of their anxiety in a safe space. The goal is to slowly, and incrementally, increase the person’s exposure to their fear. There are several variations of exposure therapy (APA, n.d.).

It is useful in the treatment of:

  • Phobias
  • Panic Disorder
  • Social Anxiety Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Classical conditioning also remains a popular treatment for phobias through the use of systematic desensitization. This is a variant of exposure therapy (Grace College, 2016).

 

Popular Mental Health Theories on Wellbeing

The Self-determination Theory of motivation (SDT), and more specifically, the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) posit that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the primary supports for wellbeing and optimal functioning (SDT, n.d.) If anyone of these is faulty, then the person’s wellbeing decreases. Intrinsic motivation increases through the satisfaction of having these needs met (read more about intrinsic coaching here).

The Broaden and Build Theory of Positive Emotions (Fredrickson, 1998, 2000) changed the discussion around emotions. Many of the psychological theories and research before this dealt with negative affect. These are emotions like anger, fear, sadness, guilt, and shame (Stringer, 2013).

Fredrickson argued that negative emotions create a sort of tunnel vision. Positive affect widens one’s perspective. Positive emotions like awe, joy, and gratitude expand one’s experience within the environment. The theory doesn’t advocate ignoring negative emotions. Instead, it discusses the ramifications of continuing to ignore positive ones.

The focus of the PERMA Theory of wellbeing (Seligman, 2011) is helping people to thrive. It promotes building skills that allow one to flourish (Positive Psychology Center, n.d.). Many contemporary theories attempt to help a person reduce suffering. PERMA theory of wellbeing states that wellbeing consists of five elements:

  1. Positive emotion – These emotions increase our hedonic happiness.
  2. Engagement – This is the flow that Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi discusses. Being engrossed in one’s pursuit is the reward.
  3. Relationships – Support is critical to our survival and emotional wellbeing.
  4. Meaning – Serving or working in a capacity that contributes to something larger than ourselves gives us a sense of purpose and meaning.
  5. Achievement – We enjoy pursuing accomplishments for the sake of doing so.

Each of these contributes in varying degrees to a person’s ability to flourish. Positive psychology therapists and coaches often use this as a backdrop for their sessions.

 

A Take-Home Message

There are several mental health theories, but they all come from one of five schools of thought. They are behaviorism, biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, and humanistic.

In recent years, there has been a move toward studying how people flourish. This is positive psychology. Unlike previous years, this field of research explores what humans already do well. Doing this type of research helps others to increase their opportunities to thrive.

If you seek the help of a therapist or counselor, it is important to know the basis for their approach. You do not want to see a behavioral psychologist to flesh out how you can find meaning in your life. They are better suited for helping you change, develop, or extinguish a habit.

The continued study of mental health, including the more positive aspects, is critical to each person’s wellbeing.

What are you doing today to flourish in your life?

If you enjoyed reading about mental health theories, why not head on over to mental health books for even more reading material.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free.

  • Alcohol and health: Battling a multifaceted burden. Retrieved July 29, 2019, from https://www.inserm.fr/en/health-information/health-and-research-from-z/alcohol-%26-health#
  • American Psychological Association (n.d.). What is exposure therapy? [Web log post]. Retrieved August 1, 2019, from https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/exposure-therapy
  • American Psychological Association (n.d.). Different approaches to psychotherapy [Web log post]. Retrieved August 1, 2019, from, https://www.apa.org/topics/therapy/psychotherapy-approaches
  • Borsboom, D. (2017 February). A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 5-13.
  • Dasgupta, S. (2013 February 14). Models of mental health and illness. Retrieved July 29, 2019, from https://www.slideshare.net/SudarshanaDasgupta/models-of-mental-health-illness
  • David, D., Cristea, I, & Hofmann, S. G. (2018 January 29). Why Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is the current gold standard of psychotherapy. Front Psychiatry, 9(4).
  • Grace College (2016 November 15). 4 popular mental health counseling theories [Web log post]. Retrieved July 26, 2019 from https://online.grace.edu/news/human-services/counseling-theories/
  • Mayo Clinic (n.d.). Family therapy: Overview. Retrieved July 28, 2019 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/family-therapy/about/pac-20385237
  • Mayo Clinic (n.d.). Mental Illness. Retrieved July 26, 2019, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20374974
  • McLeod, S. (2016). Bandura – Social Learning Theory [Web log post]. Retrieved July 28, 2019, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
  • McLeod, S. (2018). The medical model [Web log post]. Retrieved August 1, 2019 from, https://www.simplypsychology.org/medical-model.html
  • Positive Psychology Center (n.d.). PERMA Theory of well-being workshops. Retrieved August 2, 2019, from https://ppc.sas.upenn.edu/learn-more/perma-theory-well-being-and-perma-workshops
  • Scientific theory (n.d.) Retrieved July 29, 2019, from https://www.dictionary.com/browse/scientific-theory
  • Self-Determination Theory: Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2019 from, https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/theory/
  • Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.
  • Stringer, D. M. (2013). Negative affect. Retrieved August 2, 2019, from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1005-9_606.

About the Author

Kori D. Miller, MA, is a habit change aficionado, facilitator, and coach. Kori loves helping others achieve their goals one bite-size step at a time. She completed graduate-level coursework in positive psychology through the University of Missouri-Columbia and is completing a master's program in Educational Psychology with a specialization in neuropsychology.

Comments

  1. Lyn Mary

    Thank you for the great article my research is on the psychological impact of isolation on COVID 19 patients can you help with an appropriate theory

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Lyn,

      I’m not sure how easily you’ll find a theory specifically on social isolation as it relates to COVID, but there’s a great summary of the thinking in this space in Pietrabissa and Simpson (2020) — hopefully this should help you!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  2. Christian

    Hai you can help me about theory mental issues of student amidst coved 19 pandemic

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Christian,

      Research on the psychological impact of the pandemic on students is still emerging. I’m not sure that you will find a specific ‘theory’ on this. However, one of the first and most highly cited accounts we’ve seen so far related to student populations is Cao et al. (2020), which is showing students are experiencing much higher levels of anxiety, but factors like economic stability and social support may buffer against these negative effects.

      Another useful read may be this call for further research on the topic by Grubic et al. (2020). This could help you identify some specific gaps in the literature you could address with your research 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  3. Jo

    Hello, I’m looking for some suggestions of theories that would support the medical model regarding mental illness being a physically issue.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jo,

      This is a complex subject area with a lot of debates. Is your question about the link between body and mind (e.g., how physical ill-being tends to coincide with mental illness)? Or are you interested in something a bit different?

      Let me know and I’d be happy to advise!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  4. Letitia Golding

    Hi. I am doing my dissertation on the impact that social media plays on an adolescents mental health. Could you offer some theories you think i could use in the discussion section.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Letitia,

      Difficult to recommend a specific theory on this, but I’d suggest taking a look at the review on this topic by McCrory et al. (2020) as a starting point, and take a look at Section 3 for a discussion of theoretical considerations.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  5. Dara

    hi can you help me with “psychological support” i just need for my research

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Dara,

      Could you please give me a little more information about the type of resources you need regarding psychological support? Let me know and I’d be happy to advise.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  6. SR

    Hi!

    I am currently conducting research on mental health and help seeking behaviors among college students. Are there any theories you could recommend for this topic?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi SR,

      I’m unaware of the specific theories that predict help-seeking behaviors in this population. However, you’ll find a detailed review of this topic in Gulliver et al. (2010) which should point you in the right direction 🙂

      Hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  7. Maylyn

    Can you help me in my theoretical Framework our research title is Mental Health: Struggles and Difficulties of Students During Covid-19 Pandemic. Please help me.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Maylyn,

      Research on the psychological impact of the pandemic is still emerging. However, one of the first and most highly cited accounts we’ve seen so far related to student populations is Cao et al (2020), which is showing students are experiencing much higher levels of anxiety, but factors like economic stability and social support may buffer against these negative effects.

      Another useful read may be this call for further research on the topic by Grubic et al. (2020). This could help you identify some specific gaps in the literature you could address with your research 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  8. Selinah D Nthoba

    Greetings Dr Miller;

    I am doing a study on effects COVID-19 related psychological stress on academic anxiety and adjustment of university students. I am working on the theoretical frameworks and I’m using Maslow’s theory, however I think i’m struggling to apply it on my study. Do you have any advise for me or alternative theory I can look at.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Selinah,

      Sounds like interesting research! Maslow’s hierarchy is generally not used so much in research. While it was influential in prompting thinking around themes of well-being and self-actualization, this hierarchical model of well-being has been disproven.

      Research on the psychological impact of the pandemic is still emerging. However, one of the first and most highly cited accounts we’ve seen so far related to student populations is Cao et al (2020), which is showing students are experiencing much higher levels of anxiety, but factors like economic stability and social support may buffer against these negative effects.

      Check out Kopasker et al. (2018) for a discussion of economic insecurity’s links to mental health. Self-determination theory is also widely applied in academic contexts and may be worth considering.

      I hope this helps!

      Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  9. Joel Boniao

    Hello Doc, Can you give me a theoretical framework for my research entitled: The Sudden Shift to Face-to-Face Education and its Impact on the Psychological Aspect of the Teachers

    This research is about the pandemic time for teachers.

    It will be a very big help if you can recommend me theories for this research. Thank you.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Joel,

      Teacher mental health is a big area of research that draws on many different mental health theories and concepts, including resilience, self-regulation, and motivation. I’d recommend having a read of Beltman et al.’s (2011) review to get an idea of the different approaches you could take to capturing mental health and making a choice based on this.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  10. Monica Ocbina

    Can you give me a Theoretical Framework about ” The Impact of Having Mental health of Students in New Normal”

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Monica,

      Could you please provide a little more information about your research? E.g., which specific aspects of mental health are you most interested in, and what aspect of the post-COVID situation will you be examining as affecting mental health (e.g., remote learning)?

      Let me know and I’d be happy to advise.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  11. Anu

    Really helpful. I would also like to ask if there is any specific theory relating to my research: Multidisciplinary perspective: impact of strength-based model in adult mental health service

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Anu,

      A good starting point may be to look at the VIA Character Strengths Inventory, which I believe is the dominant theory taxonomizing strengths. You can learn about that in our blog post here. Alternatively, if your interest is in the effective functioning of mental health service providers (and leveraging the strengths of the people working within such organizations), definitely take a look at the topic of appreciative inquiry.

      Hope that helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  12. Emeli

    Thank you for this Doc Miller. Can I ask for help? I am looking for a theory for our research on the prevalence and characteristics of OCD during the pandemic. Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Emeli,

      Sounds like important research you’re doing. I would suggest taking a look at the article by Wheaton et al. (2021) for a starting point on the impacts of the pandemic on people living with OCD.

      I hope this helps 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  13. Karin

    Hello! I would just like to ask if you could recommend a theory about mental health in urban area. thank you! hope you see this 🙂

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Karin,

      Are you interested specifically in the affects of urban spaces on mental health? Or more the mental health of people who live in cities, etc.? Let me know and I’d be happy to advise!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  14. Liz

    Hello can you give me theory regarding “psychological distress among solo parents in the new normal” adapting the environmental changes and how it affects their mental state? Or any thoery that is related to psychological distress among solo parents.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Liz,

      Difficult to recommend a theory that applies specifically to solo parents, but I’d suggest looking at this paper McLanahan et al. (1981) which looks at how networks of people supporting the single parent can affect psychological well-being and mental health.

      I hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  15. Chuks

    Hi doctor. Your article was insigtful, thank you.

    I am a mental health student and would request for your help to recommend any theoritical issues/ theories that underpin, influence, and inform mental health assessment in mental health nursing. This will provide a guide in preparing my research work.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Chuks,

      If you’re interested in theories underpinning mental health assessment, one I’d highly recommend is the cognitive model of mental illness, initially developed by Beck (1964). In its simplest form, the cognitive model hypothesizes that people’s emotions and behaviors are influenced by their perceptions of events.

      The reference is as follows:

      Beck, J. S. (1964) Cognitive Therapy: Basics and beyond, New York: Guildford Press.

      There are, of course, other psychological models and theories, but Beck’s approach is very widely used and likely a good starting point.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  16. Amy

    Hello. Great read and very useful, thank you 🙂 I am doing my dissertation on ‘The impact social media has on the mental health of adolescents’. What theoretical perspective or model would you recommend writing about to underpin this please? Im thinking depression and anxiety as the mental health disorder. Any help would be much appreciated.

    Many thanks,

    Amy

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Amy,

      Difficult to recommend a specific theory on this, but I’d suggest taking a look at the review on this topic by McCrory et al. (2020) as a starting point, and take a look at Section 3 for a discussion of theoretical considerations.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  17. Mina

    Hi there,

    Could you please give me a theoretical framework that I can use for my dissertation? The topic is on how Religion (Islam) promotes mental well-being

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Mina,

      It’s challenging to recommend a specific theoretical framework linking religiosity to well-being as there are many social and contextual factors that can affect this relationship. However, a good starting point for your reading is likely to be this paper from Tiliouine et al. (2009), which examines these two variables together.
      I hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  18. Sheev

    Hello! May I ask if you can use CBT(Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) as a theoretical framework for research.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Sheev,

      CBT is a therapeutic method based on the cognitive model of mental illness, initially developed by Beck (1964). In its simplest form, the cognitive model hypothesizes that people’s emotions and behaviors are influenced by their perceptions of events.

      So it would be most appropriate to go back to Beck’s original theorizing and using this as a framework. The reference is as follows:

      Beck, J. S. (1964) Cognitive Therapy: Basics and beyond, New York: Guildford Press.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  19. Lovely

    Hi there. Can you suggest a theory on our research topic. It is about the exploration of mental health literacy in our city.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Lovely,

      Could you please provide a little more information? I.e., are you interested in the antecedents or outcomes of mental health literacy (and which ones)?

      Let me know and I’d be happy to advise.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  20. nana

    hello, i’m writing a journal about mental illness, can you give me the right theory recommendation?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Nana,

      I’d be happy to offer my thoughts on this. Could you let me know a little more about your research interests in this area? E.g., are you interested in any specific mental illness? Likewise, will you be examining its antecedents or consequences?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  21. Alison

    Hello! Can you please provide a theory or a framework that will support my reserach title: Learning the importance of mental health education among students.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Alison,

      It’s difficult for me to recommend a theory based on just the title of your research. Could you tell me a little about the variables you’ll be looking at? One starting point for you may also be this paper by Weare & Nind (2011), which reviews the evidence for mental health education in schools.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  22. Carolina

    Hi there,

    I am finding it difficult to find theoretical models and dimensions that relate to my research topic. My topic is socio economic and racial inequalities in mental health access and treatment.

    I believe I could relate it to socio cultural paradigm, however, I need more theoretical models and dimensions that can relate to this topic.

    Please it would be great if you could help me out with some suggestions

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Carolina,

      It’s a little difficult for me to recommend socio-cultural/economic theories for this as your research is not about the concept of mental health itself, but rather access to care and treatment (so it’s beyond the scope of my expertise). However, you might want to take a look at this paper by Ojeda & Bergstresser (2008) as a starting point exploring some of these factors (e.g., they look at some of the sociocultural/economic factors that may drive mistrust of healthcare systems or fear of being stigmatized for mental health conditions).

      I hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  23. Jhellay

    Can you provide a theoretical framework for our research topic which is coping abilities in mental health among student nurse. Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jhellay,

      I’m not sure you’ll find a theory that applies specifically to populations of student nurses, but I suspect you’ll find a good summary of factors (with citations to relevant theories) in this article by Montes-Berges & Augusto (2007).

      Hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  24. maryjane

    hi! , i’m doing a research about strengthening mental health can you give me a perfect theory about strengthening mental health ??

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Maryjane,

      Could you please give me a few more details about your research (e.g., which aspects of mental health you’re interested in improving)? That way I should be able to help point you in the right direction.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Maryjane

        My research is all about ways of strengthening mental health , like i will recommended psychological health of high school students during the pandemic. like that

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Maryjane,

          In that case, I would suggest looking at self-determination theory’s core needs as a general theory you could apply (i.e., looking at whether/how the pandemic has frustrated (or strengthened) students’ satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and how this relates to indicators of mental wellness).

          Let me know if this helps.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  25. Miyah

    Im having a hard time choosing what theory fits our research I’m currently working on my theoretical framework can you suggest a theory that fits our topic which is.. ” Psychological health of students during online or distant learning” pleasseee and thank you!!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Miyah,

      Thank you for your comment. Research on these topics is still emerging as the impacts of the pandemic become more apparent, but a good first place to start might be this article by Lister et al. (2021), who taxonomizes all the positive and negative influencing factors that may have effects on distance-learning students’ mental health, and I’m sure they’d point to different theories, too.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  26. Mary joy

    Good morning. Our study is all about he impact of covid 19 pandemic in mental health of a student. Can you suggest psychological theory about this. Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Mary,

      So far research on the psychological impact of the pandemic is still emerging. However, one of the first and most highly cited accounts we’ve seen so far related to student populations is Cao et al (2020), which is showing students are experiencing much higher levels of anxiety, but factors like economic stability and social support may buffer against these negative effects.

      Check out Kopasker et al. (2018) for a discussion of economic insecurity’s links to mental health, and there are lots of theories you could draw on to explore the importance of social resources, such as self-determination theory’s relatedness need.

      I hope this helps!

      Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  27. Nate

    Hi, I am doing a research regarding the impact of online games on the mental health of students. I am having a hard time doing the theoretical framework. Can you recommend some theories that correlates with the research?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Nate,

      Online gaming’s effects on mental health has been explored with reference to theories of addiction (i.e., you can explore the topic through an addiction lens). See Kamal & Wok (2020) for more on this.

      Hope this helps.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Nate

        Thank you! But we already used the Social Cognitive Theory but it got rejected. Our research focuses on the positive and negative effect of online game on the mental health of students. Is there another theory?

        And also, please disregard my another comment. I thought this comment was not seen. I am sorry!

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Nate,

          You’re welcome. Alternatives you could use might be self-determination theory’s core needs. For instance, students could be attempting to get their autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs met through gaming. This may work as a substitute when attempts to get this needs in the ‘real world’ are frustrated (see this post for more on this theory).

          You could also look at the role of gaming through the lens of recovery theory (e.g., see Sonnentag and Fritz, 2007). E.g., it’s a way to psychologically detach, feel mastery, etc.

          I think when gaming begins to negatively affect other areas of a person’s life, maybe that’s when the addiction literature is worth pursuing.

          Let me know if that helps.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  28. Priya

    where does Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory fit? does it apply only to children?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Priya,

      Yes, this is a theory of child development. I’d say the different factors/levels that appear in Bronfenbrenner’s framework can flow on to affect the mental health of a child, and ultimately that of the adult, when negative impacts the different levels of the environment (micro, macro, etc.) have on the child go unresolved. For instance, the experience of bullying at the level of a child’s microsystem might have a long-lasting negative impact on one’s self-image (leading to negative rumination, etc. and other things symptomatic of mental illness). So too might an oppressive culture at the macrosystem level (e.g., one that does not allow freedom of religion), resulting in fear of persecution that flows on to affect mental health.

      But likewise, positive features flowing from each of these levels can positively impact mental health, such as if a positive community (neighbors, extended family, etc.) bolstered social resources and resilience in the child.

      Hopefully those examples illustrate how the different levels can affect mental health (and see here to read more on this theory).

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  29. chara

    Hi, can you suggest some examples of theories to use for examine the factors / causes of mental illness?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Chara,

      Mental illness appears to be caused by a combination of environmental and biological factors (see this article from the APA for a summary). So, you might consider Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory, as well as theories about neurobiology to name a couple.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  30. Rang

    hi can you give me a theory regarding how important implementing mental health care program for the employees?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Rang,

      Please see LaMontagne et al (2014) for a proposed ‘three-prong’ approach to delivering effective workplace mental health interventions (and their impacts).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  31. clare

    Hi! I am currently conducting a research on the mental health of students amidst pandemic. I am working on its theoretical framework 🙂 It would be highly appreciated if you would suggest me some theories that I can include and relate with my research 🙂

    Thank you!

    Reply
    • clare

      it also relates with online classes! ^^

      Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Clare,

      So far research on the psychological impact of the pandemic is still emerging. However, one of the first and most highly cited accounts we’ve seen so far related to student populations is Cao et al (2020), which is showing students are experiencing much higher levels of anxiety, but factors like economic stability and social support may buffer against these negative effects.

      Check out Kopasker et al. (2018) for a discussion of economic insecurity’s links to mental health, and there are lots of theories you could draw on to explore the importance of social resources, such as self-determination theory’s relatedness need.

      I hope this helps!

      Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  32. John

    Hi,

    Where Can I get brief content explaining the following theories:
    Analytical/developmental (Freud, Jung, Erickson, Kohlberg)
    Behavioral (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov)
    Cognitive (Tolman, Piaget, Chomsky)
    Social (Bandura, Lewin, Festinger)
    Humanistic (Rogers and Maslow)
    Personality (Erickson’s psychosocial development theory)

    Reply
  33. Ellen

    As a student of Behavioral Health with Emphasis on Childhood Trauma and Disorders, what recommendations would you make regarding best theories that are trauma focused, and can deal with children, adolescents, and adults? Excellent article, thank you for sharing your expertise and perspectives.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ellen,

      Glad you found the article useful! I think you’ll find that the topic of trauma intersects with a few theories of mental health. The field, theory, and practice of Psychoanalysis (beginning with Freud) would be my go-to recommendation for looking at trauma (across all populations). For an in-depth treatment, take a look at Ringel & Brandell (2012). The first edition of this book has two chapters dedicated to psychoanalytic theory at its beginning.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  34. Athar

    Thank you so much. Doc can you recommend a theory for my topic which is about pregnant and postpartum women awareness of mental health issues.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Athar,

      You’re very welcome! I’m not an expert on postpartum mental health myself, but you’ll find an in-depth review of five different theoretical perspectives on this in Beck (2002), including perspectives based in attachment theory and interpersonal theory. Hopefully, this will help you arrive at a decision for your research.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  35. Noluthando

    good eveniong, thank you somuch for your aticle, i need your help on theories on ” knowledge , perception and attitude of mental health in the workplace, thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Noluthando,

      You’re very welcome! Are you specifically looking at managers/employees’ attitudes toward workplace mental health? Likewise, are you looking for a theory explaining how a person’s attitudes toward mental health and interventions may be shaped? Let me know and I should be able to point you toward something specific that should help. And for one example of a training intervention that may be useful, perhaps take a look at the following article by Kelloway et al. (2016), which was shown to increase leaders mental health literacy and affect processing of short-term mental health disability claims — you might find some actionable ideas for interventions in this.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  36. Counsellor Mollel

    Hi Kori,
    Thank you for your very enlightening article. Currently, I am conducting a research on the effects of covid-19 pandemic on the mental health of the microbusiness enterprise community in the town where I live. Kindly suggest some of the theories I can use for this study.

    Best regards

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Mollel,

      So glad you found this article useful. Given that your focal topic is quite specific, it might be tough to find a mental health theory that applies specifically to your population of interest (microbusiness owners, etc.) However, I’d suggest having a read of Yesmin et al. (2021), who talk about the possible effects of the pandemic on these communities through the lens of resilience, which is highly relevant to an exploration of mental health theories. You can also read more about resilience theories in our dedicated blog post on the topic.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  37. Bambie

    Hi, Good day! Can you recommend a theory about Mental Health of Teenagers who had been in failed relationships? Thank you, hope you see this message 🙂

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Bambie,

      Happy to help! I’d suggest having a read of Whitton et al. (2012) who explore this topic. Search for “theor” in the article, and you’ll see that self-identity/self-concept theory and theories of emotional resources may be relevant to what you’re exploring here (you might want to dig back through the cited references in this paper where these terms are mentioned).

      I hope this sets you on the right track!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  38. Tasha

    Hello ma’am, I would just like to ask if you could recommend a theory that states the external factors that affect mental health. Your response would be greatly appreciated.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Tasha,

      That’s a big question! I don’t think you’ll find one single theory that encapsulates all of these factors. Likewise, mental health (or ill-health) can take a lot of different forms depending on how you conceptualize it, so these factors could be acting on quite different phenomenon related to mental health.

      To get a holistic picture, I’d suggest taking a look at Langellier et al.’s (2019) review which takes a complex systems approach to this topic.

      I hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  39. Tarsha Harris

    I am working on my prospectus in which my dissertation focuses on the barriers to mentoring black women regarding mental health treatment. Could you recommend a theoretical framework that I could use for my study? Your help is greatly apprecipated.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Tarsha,

      Sounds like an interesting project! The focus of your research is quite specific, so I’m not sure how easy it would be to recommend a theoretical framework that captures all these features. However, a good starting point to figure out what has been done in this space (and the past frameworks applied) may be this systematic review by Bishop (2018) on mental health coaching as a practice. If you search back through the references, I suspect you’ll get a good sense as to which frameworks are applied re: barriers to mentoring and your population of interest.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  40. Muddanagouda Patil

    hello ma’am,
    I am a research scholar working on the topic “Mental Health among Transport, Forest and Police Employees”.
    Could you please suggest the theories I could use for my theoretical background on the Mental health of these employees? It would be really helpful if I get some precise theories on the topic.
    Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Muddanagouda,

      Of course! So that I can recommend something tailored, could you tell me a little more about some of the factors common in this population’s work that may specifically affect their mental health? I can infer re: the challenges faced by police officers (for which I’d recommend looking at Paton et al’s 2008 Stress Shield model), but how about the transport and forest employees?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  41. charlene liis

    Hi! can you please guide me that which theories are suitable for measuring mental health of Jail Officers. Thank You and God Bless

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Charlene,

      Given the nature of this work, you may find the Job-Demands Resources Model useful as a theory to predict when prisoner officers will vs. will not experience strain (and potentially subsequent ill mental health) as a result of their job. Definitely take a look at Kinman et al. (2017) for a useful paper applying this theory in a similar context.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  42. Marooj

    Hi! can you please guide me that which theories are suitable for measuring mental health of teachers?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Marooj,

      Teacher mental health is a big area of research that draws on many different mental health theories and concepts, including resilience, self-regulation, and motivation. I’d recommend having a read of Beltman et al.’s (2011) review to get an idea of the different approaches you could take to capturing mental health and making a choice based on this.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Marooj

        Ok Mam! thanks alot

        Reply
      • Marooj

        Basicaly Mam I am doing research with topic of Effect of depression , stress and anxiety on mental health of teachers and I am confused about theories. I am studying mental health as a genral so that’s why I am confused about the theories that which i have to add in Theoratical framework

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Marooj,

          Thanks for the clarification here. A quick thought is that you may find it useful to look at the concept of subjective well-being in place of ‘mental health’. This is because ‘mental health’ is not really a concept that is operationalized and measured in our field as it’s quite broad. That is, you could look at how factors in the teacher’s work environment predict depression/anxiety/stress, which, in turn, predicts reduced subjective well-being (a mediation model).

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
          • Marooj

            ok mam thank you so much for such guidance

  43. ayesha

    hi which theoies i can use for metal wellbeing

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ayesha,

      My general recommendation would be if you’re looking to conduct research (or administer quantitative surveys as part of a research effort), take a look at self-determination theory, as it is widely accepted by scholars and there are many validated and pre-existing measurement tools you can use under the SDT umbrella. If you’re looking to apply theories of mental health in more of a practice-based way (i.e., working as a coach), take a look at the PERMA model, which we explore more in our dedicated post.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  44. Bailey M.

    Hi, and thank you for the very insightful article. Can you recommend any theory that may be associated with the mental health of employees in the workplace?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Bailey,

      Scholars in IO psychology and organizational behavior are pretty partial to self-determination theory for understanding how work environments may or may not help employees satisfy their core needs. Other theories to consider are job demands-resources model and job crafting theory, which both consider how the balance of demands and resources in an organisation (and the degree of control we have over these) can impose stress/strain or be rewarding for employees.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  45. Rickjohn

    Can I ask if you know some mental health theories I can use to my research? Its about the perception of first year college on mental health issues.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Rickjohn,

      Thanks for your question. As this article highlights, there are many different factors that can affect our mental health, including our experience of attachment to caregivers as a child, our routines and health-related habits, and our experience of need satisfaction.

      You might struggle to find a single theory that addresses all of these. However, I’m personally fond of Self-Determination Theory’s three core needs. It focuses on mental wellness in one’s present-day experiences in terms of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and it’s widely used by scholars today.

      Alternatively, seeing as your research is about college students, you may want to look into the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62) as another potential option. I believe it’s been used with samples of college students before (see Soet & Sevig, 2006) and includes questions specifically about academic demands.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  46. Vee

    Hi

    I am looking at the effects of paternal mental health on children. What theory would you recommend exploring in more detail?

    kindest regards

    Vee

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Vee,

      If you haven’t already, I would consider looking into Attachment Theory, which focuses on the developmental relationships between children and their caregivers. You can learn more about this theory in our dedicated blog post here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  47. Sarah Lamigo

    Hi I’m currently trying to finish my research in my Masteral Study. Can you suggest a theory that will fit the over-all mental health of wellbeing. I’m so glad I’ve found your article

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Sarah,

      Thanks for your question. As this article highlights, there are many different factors that can affect our mental health, including our experience of attachment to caregivers as a child, our routines and health-related habits, and our experience of need satisfaction.

      You might struggle to find a single theory that addresses all of these. However, I’m personally fond of Self-Determination Theory’s three core needs. It focuses on mental wellness in one’s present-day experiences in terms of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and it’s widely used by scholars today.

      I hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  48. Reiya Ocampo

    I would like to ask, what theory is perfect for a study that aims to study about the perceived factors that affect mental health.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Reiya,

      Thanks for your question. As this article highlights, there are many different factors that can affect our mental health, including our experience of attachment to caregivers as a child, our routines and health-related habits, and our experience of need satisfaction.

      You might struggle to find a single theory that addresses all of these. However, I’m personally fond of Self-Determination Theory’s three core needs. It focuses on mental wellness in one’s present-day experiences in terms of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and it’s widely used by scholars today.

      I hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • DONNA EVE S. SUMAMPONG

        I would like to ask, what theory is perfect for a study that aims to study about Exploring the Mental Health Experiences of Nurses Working in COVID-19 Ward

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Donna,

          Theoretical work on this is still emerging, but you’ll find a good review of the factors that can feed into mental health challenges faced by nurses working with COVID in Sampaio et al. (2021).

          Hope this helps a little!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  49. Jm Sampang

    When was this article published or created?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jm,

      This post was first published on Sep 2, 2019 but was last updated to the current version on the Sep 1, 2020.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  50. Jasmine Mark

    Hi well written. Thank you Kori.
    Just one question , is Carl Rogers theory similar to Hildegarde Peplau theory?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jasmine,

      There are overlaps between Carl Rogers’ theory and that of Peplau. For instance, both involve a highly collaborative process between the client and care-giver that involves listening empathically to the client’s needs. However, Peplau’s theory seems to apply primarily to a nursing context and has more to do with encouraging health-related behavior-change, whereas Rogers’ theory can be applied in a broader range of helper-client relationships to achieve a broader range of goals.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  51. Jean Campbell

    Thank you for the article. As a Psychodramatist and Somatic Experiencing Practitioner, I would encourage you to update the article to include creative arts therapists (psychodrama, drama therapy, art therapy, dance/movement therapy, etc) and somatic therapies (Somatic Experiencing, Sensorimotor Therapy, etc). These modalities allow clients to get at issues, and particularly trauma, that cannot be healed through words alone, all while expanding the window of tolerance and building the client’s capacity to live a healthier, happier life. Thank you.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jean,

      Thank you for your feedback! We’ll keep it in mind as we continue revising our posts. In the meantime, we do have a couple of other articles in our blog on the topics of art therapy and somatic therapy, which you may find interesting.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  52. Vincent Moyo

    It is very useful as I am pursuing Masters in Public Mental Health Care. Is it possible for me to have a full copy of the document

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Vincent,

      Glad you found this post helpful. While we don’t currently have an option to download our posts, you are very welcome to share them with others. If you scroll to the end of the post and respond positively to the question ‘How useful was this article to you?’ several sharing options will become available to you.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  53. Nelly Munge

    Thanks you so much on writing this article . This helped me greatly with completing my course work .
    Well done

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Nelly,
      So glad we were able to help. Hope you get a great grade!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
    • Kayzette Javid

      Good day, what theory is perfect for a study involvement in fitness activity in maintaining healthy mind?

      Reply
      • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

        Hi Kayzette,

        Thank you for your question. It’s tricky to suggest a single theory that encapsulates all the benefits of exercise for the mind (see here for something of a review). At face value, my thought would be that you could draw on research about neurotransmitters to draw links between regular exercise and positive mental states (e.g., a dopamine release). But exercise can also have more subjective effects on mental health, such as by giving us opportunities to feel a sense of competence (e.g., performing well at sport; explained by Self-Determination Theory).

        – Nicole | Community Manager

        Reply
        • Kayzette Javid

          Thankyosomuch 😇😌

          Reply
  54. John Chrysostom Lule

    I am a Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology trying to work with psychiatrists and clinical psychologists on how to make mental health care accessible and responsive to perinatal (pregnancy, labor and postnatal) young women (15-24 years) in a rural community setting in Uganda. My knowledge of mental health is both rudimentary and antiquated! I have immensely enjoyed reading this article. Well done!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi John,
      Glad to hear you enjoyed the article. It sounds like you’re doing amazing work, and I hope you can pass on what you have learned to your clients!
      Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Maribeth Lastrollo

        Doc can you recommend a theory about mental health condition amidst covid-19 pandemic?

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Maribeth,

          Beyond the general theories of needs and well-being I’ve recommended to others (e.g., self-determination theory), as far as I know, there is yet to emerge a substantive theory about mental health in the context of infectious disease. However, you might find the information here by Ho et al. (2020) to be a useful read that highlights similarities between the effects on mental health that we’re seeing now to those during the SARS outbreak.

          I hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
      • G

        Can u give me a theory regarding the incidence of mental health among secondary student within this pandemic period of time.thanks

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi G,

          There isn’t yet much published research tying theories of mental health to students’ experience during the pandemic, unfortunately. However, I can point you toward some reading that might help. First Grubic et al. (2020) summarizes what we do know so far in this space. Further, Cao et al. (2020) has conducted research on the impact of the pandemic as increasing students’ anxiety and provides a theoretical basis for mental health interventions with college students (in the discussion, I believe).

          I hope this helps a little!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  55. Graeme Henshall

    Hi Kori,
    Thank you for such an excellent, well-written article.
    Much appreciated.

    Reply
  56. Sharad Sakorkar

    It clarified. I was able to cut through some chaotic web of understanding I had in my head! Thanks

    Reply
  57. Jacqueline

    Very well written.

    Reply
  58. Mutia

    thank you so much ms. Miller, for your article. It was a little bit difficult for me to expalin about positive apprroach in psychology. Your article is very valuable for me

    Reply
    • Kori D. Miller

      Hi, Mutia.
      You’re welcome, and thank you for reading! I’m happy to know you found it useful.

      Reply
  59. Ettamae Jones

    This was a great article. Totally enjoyed it!!

    Reply
    • Greg Purvis

      fantastic article, concise, precise and well written. thank you for sharing your talent.

      Reply
      • Kori D. Miller

        Hi, Greg.
        Thank you for reading it!

        Reply
    • Kori D. Miller

      Hi, Ettamae.
      Thank you for taking the time to read it! Your feedback is appreciated!

      Reply
      • Joseph

        I am PhD Candidate and My research Is entitled ”Adolescent mental health disorder, health seeking behavior, barriers and preference ” , it is my deep pleasure if you suggest me theories correlate with this research tittle.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Joseph,

          Sounds like an interesting topic 🙂 Similar to the previous comment, my sense is that adolescent mental health is a big topic. Mental health as an ‘outcome’ can be conceptualized in a lot of different ways, such as subjective well-being, absence (or low levels) of anxiety/depression symptoms, etc. So, could you let me know the specific sort of mental health disorder(s) you will be focusing on, then perhaps I can suggest a theory that points to drivers. Likewise, could you elaborate the kinds of ‘barriers’ and ‘preferences,’ you’re interested in?

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply

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