Measuring Self-Efficacy with Scales and Questionnaires

Self Efficacy Scale
Photo by Matthew Henry from Burst

Self-efficacy is all about your belief in your own abilities as it pertains to dealing with various situations.

Self-efficacy can play a big role in your life, impacting not only how you feel about yourself but also how successful you might be.

According to Albert Bandura, an influential social cognitive psychologist, self-efficacy is defined as:

The belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.

Self-efficacy is a hot topic amongst psychologists and educators, and it can have a huge impact on just about everything from psychological states to motivation to behavior.

When it comes right down to it, our belief in our own ability to succeed plays a key role in how we think and how we feel. It also helps us establish our place in the world and can even determine what kind of goals we set and how we go about accomplishing those goals.

In this article, we will examine tools to measure self-efficacy as well as how self-efficacy affects children and academics.

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You can download the free PDF here.

How to Best Measure Self-Efficacy

Self-efficacy is critically important when it comes to protecting yourself against psychological stress.

While there are many tools for measuring self-efficacy, the SES or Self-Efficacy Survey is a good one to start with because it is based upon Bandura’s socio-cognitive theory. (Self-Efficacy Survey: A new assessment tool, 2012, March 16).

The SES is designed to evaluate ten functional areas of life:

  1. Intellectual
  2. Family
  3. Educational
  4. Professional
  5. Social
  6. Religious
  7. Erotic
  8. Moral
  9. Life
  10. Health

For the survey, 150 items were created with 15 items per number. Two expert judges examined each item for validity.

Unacceptable and irrelevant items were then removed, leaving 130 remaining items. The remaining questions were then included and used with 246 participants.

Once the internal consistency values were computed, 26 items were then removed, leaving 104. These 104 were then applied to 180 subjects.

Each question contains a six-point Likert scale with 1 representing a strong disagreement and 6 representing a strong agreement of each subject’s perceived self-efficacy in different areas of life.

  • Intellectual (High intellectual means subject is satisfied with their intellectual performance and degree of difficulty.)
  • Family (High family means subject believes their family trusts them and offers them the social and emotional support needed.)
  • Educational (High educational means subject is satisfied with the education they are receiving.)
  • Professional (High personal means subject is satisfied with their professional position or professional capabilities by colleagues.)
  • Social (High social means one is satisfied with their social status and recognition.)
  • Religious (High religious means one is at peace with their divinity and faith.)
  • Erotic (High moral means one is satisfied with their intimate life.)
  • Moral (High moral means one is at peace with decisions in terms of good and evil.)
  • Life Standard (High life standard means satisfaction with personal well-being.)
  • Health (High health means one feels good physically and emotionally.)

The survey was administered to 426 undergraduate students with 49% female and 51% male, ages 25-55. The students resided in a university in Bucharest, Romania.

The first survey was administered to a sample of 246 students with the final pool of 104 remaining items administered to a sample of 180 participants.

Here you can access the full study of the Self-Efficacy Survey: a new assessment tool.

Self-efficacy plays a major role in how you approach goals, tasks, and challenges.

If you have a strong self-efficacy you:

  • Tend to view challenging problems as simply another task to be mastered.
  • Develop a much deeper interest in the activities you do participate in.
  • Tend to form a stronger sense of commitment to your activities and interests.
  • Might actually recover more quickly when it comes to disappointments and setbacks.

If you have a low self-efficacy you:

  • Might avoid challenging tasks.
  • May believe that difficult tasks or situations are beyond your control or capability.
  • Tend to focus on negative outcomes or personal failures more often.
  • Have a tendency to lose confidence quickly or lose faith in your personal abilities.

 

What Types of Assessment Tools are Available?

There are several types of assessments one can use to measure self-efficacy. One of these is the New General Self-Efficacy Scale by Chen, Gully, and Eden (2001).

This scale provides a measure of self-efficacy that serves as an improvement to the original self-efficacy scale of 17 items created by Sherer et al. in 1982. Although this scale is considerably shorter it is thought to have a higher construct validity that the General Self-efficacy Scale.

The eight-item measure scale assesses one’s belief that they can achieve their goals, despite whatever difficulties they may encounter or have.

Researchers have used this measure with African-Americans living on a low income, European Americans who were homeless, Latin-American, first generation Latinx college students and college students as well as professionals in the U. S. and abroad.

 

Instructions

Using a five-point rating scale (see below) survey respondents showed how much they agreed or didn’t agree by answering eight statements.

Researchers then calculated a score for each respondent by averaging their ratings.

Response Format
1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree.

Survey Questions

  1. I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for myself.
  2. When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them.
  3. In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me.
  4. I believe I can succeed at almost any endeavor to which I set my mind.
  5. I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges.
  6. I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks.
  7. Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well.
  8. Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well.

To calculate a score, one would take the average of all of the responses. A higher score indicates a greater self-efficacy.

The Strengths Self-Efficacy Scale (SSES) by Tsai, Chaichanasakul, Zhao, Flores & Lopez, (2014) is a questionnaire that measures someone’s self-belief in their ability to build a sense of personal strength as they apply it to their day-to-day life.

The research has shown that SSES scores are moderately related to the idea of self-esteem and satisfaction of life and related in a lesser sense to social desirability.

The goal of this scale is to assess one’s perceived efficacy by utilizing their personal strengths. This includes things like work and educational settings as well as things in daily life.

To score, one would simply add up all of the individual items scored. Higher scores reflect a strong degree of strengths in terms of self-efficacy.

Bandura’s Instrument Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale is another good questionnaire designed to help one gain a better understanding of the kinds of things that may create difficulties for teachers in different school activities. The scale measures efficacy in influencing decision making, school resources, instructional efficacy, disciplinary efficacy, parental involvement, enlisting community involvement, as well as creating a positive school climate.

 

What Scale is Recommended for Adults?

Newark, Elsässer & Stieglitz (2012) published a great study for self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD.

The purpose of this study was to examine therapeutic issues related to self-esteem in adults with ADHD.

43 adults were tested and matched with nonclinical samples in terms of age and gender.

Participants were assessed with self-ratings using the symptom checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and Dick’s Resources Checklist.

The following research questions were being explored:

  1. Are there significant differences between adults with ADHD and a healthy control group in matters of self-esteem and self-efficacy?
  2. Are there significant differences between adults with ADHD and a healthy control group with respect to their resources?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between the general psychological distress level and factors, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources?
  4. Is there a significant relationship between self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources?

The study showed that adults with ADHD tended to have lower self-esteem and self-efficacy when compared to a control group.

The study authors found some of the resources of adults with ADHD were reduced.

Those with ADHD seemed to possess very specific resources. The study will most likely have important implications when it comes to the treatment of adult ADHD. The findings suggest that specific treatment and therapy should include resources-oriented modules for enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy while fostering strengths.

 

A Look at Scoring

Most scoring is done by either a Likert scale or by averaging a mean score. The Likert scale, developed by Likert (1932) measures one’s attitudes by asking them to respond to a series of statements about a particular topic.

The participant answers the statements by determining the extent to which they agree or disagree.

 

Bandura’s General Self-Efficacy Scale

The General Self-Efficacy Scale or GSES is designed for people ages 12 and up. It is used to assess perceived self-efficacy as it pertains to adaptation abilities and coping scales for both stressful events and daily activities.

Self-efficacy is more about someone’s perceived capability or the kinds of resources they can muster rather than what they have.

According to Albert Bandura, there are four major sources of self-efficacy:

 

1. Mastery Experiences

Bandura believes that one of the most effective ways of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through the mastery of one’s own experiences. The more you successfully perform a task the more your sense of self-efficacy strengthens. On the other hand, if you fail to deal with a task or a challenge, then that may undermine or even weaken self-efficacy.

 

2. Social Modeling

Social modeling or seeing other people successfully completing a task can also help build your own self-efficacy.

According to Bandura, seeing people similar to yourself successfully completing something causes you to believe in your abilities that much more.

 

3. Social Persuasion

Social persuasion also comes into play. Someone complimenting you or saying something positive or encouraging can help you overcome self-doubt so that you give a task your best effort.

 

4. Psychological Responses

Our moods, emotions and physical reactions and even our level of stress can affect how we feel about our ability to succeed. These types of psychological responses play a very important role in our self-belief.

For example, if you happen to become nervous before an important speaking event, you may not speak as well, which could affect your self-efficacy in the future.

 

Why It Matters

Believing that you have the ability to overcome obstacles is both a cause and a consequence of factors related to social issues or social mobility.

Boardman and Robert (2000) found that there was less self-efficacy associated with and related with living in poor neighborhoods while Bandura and colleagues (1996) found that having a high self-efficacy is actually a good predictor of academic success.

Roman and colleagues found that, amongst those Americans living on a low income in public housing developments, that self-efficacy actually predicts both better health and physical activity. (Roman et al., 2009).

Although there are many measures when it comes to self-efficacy, research suggests the new general measure scale tends to be more reliable as well as valid in comparison to others. (Scherbaum, Cohen-Charash, & Kern, 2006).

 

Children’s Self-Efficacy Scale

Self-efficacy can also help a child develop a sense of mastery, which then reinforces a stronger sense of self-belief.

Children with high self-efficacy tend to work harder, feel more optimistic and experience less anxiety overall. A child with high self-efficacy also perseveres more.

A high sense of self-efficacy can help a child succeed academically and also give them a healthy sense of well-being.

Children with a high sense of self-efficacy have better motivation, greater resilience, lower vulnerability and a better ability to think productively when faced with a challenge.

The Self-efficacy questionnaire for children is a great overall questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy.

 

Academic Self-Efficacy Scale for Students (Zimmerman)

The Academic Self-Efficacy Scale for self-regulated learning is another wonderful tool for determining the relationship between academic performance, and self-efficacy.

Academic self-efficacy is mainly about a student’s opinion about what they can or cannot do as opposed to individual resources.

Students with high self-efficacy tend to choose complex and challenging tasks while students with lower self-efficacy tend to avoid them.

Academic self-efficacy also involves self-regulated learning, which helps a student use their own resources to plan, control and analyze the execution of tasks, activities and the preparation of learning products. (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1995)

Students with high self-efficacy tend to get better grades and show greater persistence in both engineering and science courses when compared to students with lesser.

Moreover, students with high self-efficacy use more cognitive strategies that are useful when it comes to learning, organizing their time and regulating their own efforts.

The academic self-efficacy questionnaire provides evidence of both internal consistency and validity.

In a study done in Lima, Peru there was a positive and significant relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance in first-year university students in the city of Lima. (Alegre, 2014)

There was also a positive correlation between self-regulated learning and academic performance.

 

Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale

The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) is a scale that is designed to gauge someone’s self-belief that he or she can successfully navigate and make good career decisions.

The scale consists of five subscales that measure five Career Choice Competencies of John O. Crites’ Theory of Career Maturity.

The scale is available in both a 50-item form and a 25-item short form and the scale is strongly linked to positive educational and career decisional outcomes.

Karen Taylor and Nancy Betz developed the CDSE and the intent of the scale is to measure the self-efficacy of career decision making to Bandura‘s theory of self-efficacy.

The short form was developed in 1996 from the best items of the original longer form, which was developed in 1983.

 

Self-Efficacy Scale for Exercise

The self-efficacy for exercise scale (SEE) is a self-reported scale that helps one gauge how they are feeling about their exercise habits. (Resnick & Jenkins, 2000).

The total score is calculated by summing up the responses to each question. The scale has a range of scores from 0-90. A higher number on the score represents a higher self-efficacy for exercise.

Self-efficacy beliefs are important, especially for older adults, according to the study. Age differences in perceived constraints or the perception that there are obstacles to achieving success matter, as one gets older.

If someone continues to believe that they can exercise, even while tired or being busy, it increases the likelihood that they will continue.

Another study was done by Neupert, Lachmanm & Whitbourne, (2009) where exercise self-efficacy and control beliefs, as well as effects on exercise behavior after exercise, was measured for older adults.

This particular study involved using the Strong for Life (SFL) treatment program, which consisted of using a 35-minute videotaped program of 10 different exercise routines.

Elastic bands were also used for resistance training. Resistance levels were measured at the onset of the study, and at three and six-month intervals.

The study results revealed some evidence of a link amongst changes in resistance and changes in exercise beliefs.

As a result, it was surmised that seeking to identify and overcome barriers to participation in exercise will is a very important way to improve the quality of life for older adults especially.

 

Other Recommended Surveys and Questionnaires (Incl. PDF)

There are many wonderful self-efficacy questionnaires to examine.

Parental Self-Efficacy

This is a questionnaire that is designed to help one gain a better understanding of the kinds of things that make it challenging for parents to influence their children’s school activities.

The questionnaire measures efficacy to influence school activities.

The 8-page survey includes questions such as:

  1. How much can you do to make your children see school as valuable?
  2. How much can you do to help your children get good grades in school?
  3. How much can you do to help your children keep physically fit?
  4. How much can you do to prevent your children from getting in with the wrong crowds of friends?
  5. How much can you do to prevent your children from becoming involved in drugs or alcohol?
  6. How much can you do to influence what is taught in your children’s school?
  7. How well can you keep tough problems from getting you down?
  8. How well can you overcome discouragement when nothing you try seems to work?

Self-efficacy can also be a great indicator for something like innovation, which is desperately needed in today’s world.

Work done by Al-Jalahma, D. R. (n.d.) in the paper “Developing an Innovation Self-Efficacy Survey,” provides a wonderful overview of how something like self-efficacy plays a role in innovation.

Innovation self-efficacy refers to one’s belief in his or her ability to accomplish tasks that may be necessary for innovation.

Innovation is critical for our environment and social prosperity. As a culture, we rely on industry, university, and government employees to help develop, modify and implement innovative ideas, according to Al-Jalahma, D. R. (n.d.).

Having a high degree of self-efficacy helps innovators navigate through complex problems and overcome setbacks that typically occur.

Research has shown that self-efficacy serves as an influence on the pursuit of and persistence in challenging work.

The researchers work is in the early stages, but very hopeful.

The research includes:

  1. Literature review of self-efficacy and tasks associated with innovation in multiple fields such as engineering, psychology, business, design, education, and organizational management.
  2. Interviews and survey data about task-related indicators of innovation from practitioners to academics.
  3. Using research to develop a preliminary model of innovation self-efficacy, clustering and mapping indicators into schemata.
  4. Piloting a set of survey items based on this model.

According to the research, some indicators of innovation self-efficacy include:

  • Exploration, observation, and awareness in terms of paying attention to what is going on around you.
  • Learning to adopt other viewpoints.
  • Making connections and processing information.
  • Showing creativity and having unique ideas.
  • Testing ideas for validity, feasibility, and desirability.
  • Showing persistence.
  • Setting goals and choosing how to proceed.
  • Crafting and sharing information through written and oral means.
  • Translating ideas into visualizations.

Using self-efficacy to explore the concept of innovation opens up a whole new field of possibility.

 

Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales

The Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales, by Albert Bandura, reiterates that there is not one all-purpose measure for perceived self-efficacy.

In the end, we cannot be all things all of the time. That would require a mastery of every aspect and realm of human life.

People will always differ in the areas in which they cultivate self-efficacy. For example, someone may have a high level of self-efficacy in the business world, but a low one in something like parenting.

The measure of self-efficacy is not a global trait but one that is related to distinct functions.

According to Bandura (1997), even though self-efficacy beliefs are multifaceted, social cognitive theory identifies many conditions under which they may co-vary – even across different domains of functioning.

According to the research, there are similar sub-skills and some interdomain relation in terms of perceived efficacy.

These include generic type skills such as:

  1. Skills for diagnosing task demands.
  2. Skills for constructing and evaluating alternative courses of action.
  3. Skills for setting proximal goals to guide one’s efforts.
  4. Skills for creating self-incentives to sustain engagement in taxing activities.
  5. Skills for managing stress and debilitating intrusive thoughts.

Co-development of self-efficacy skills can also occur. Similar levels of self-efficacy can be seen in students in various academic subjects like language or mathematics. Even though these may be dissimilar academic subjects the student may still have a high level of self-efficacy in both.

Achieving a powerful mastery of experiences can lead to transformation and personal change, as self-efficacy beliefs are manifested across diverse realms of functioning.

 

The Self-Efficacy Scale Construction and Validation

The theory of self-efficacy tells us that things like psychotherapy and behavioral changes both operate through a common mechanism, the change or alteration of someone’s individual expectations as it relates to both personal mastery and success.

According to Bandura (1997), there are two types of expectancies that exert a powerful influence on behavior:

  1. Expectancies related to outcome or the belief that a behavior will lead to a certain outcome.
  2. Self-efficiency expectancy or the belief that you can successfully perform the behavior in question.

According to Bandura, expectations of self-efficacy are a very powerful determinate of behavioral changes because one’s expectations determine the initial decision to perform the behavior in the first place. As a result, one expends effort and overcomes adversity.

 

Construct Validity

The idea of construct validity is all about how we define how well a test or experiment measures up to its claims.

It also refers to whether or not the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the true theoretical meaning of a concept.

Construct validity is utilized mainly by social sciences, psychology, and education. There are many examples of construct validity. Let’s say someone is measuring the human brain in terms of intelligence, level of emotion, proficiency, and ability.

While these concepts are abstract and theoretical, they have been observed in practice.

One example might be a doctor testing the effectiveness of a certain painkiller when prescribing it to someone with chronic back pain.

The doctor might ask the subjects to rate their pain level on a scale from one – ten, where ten is a condition of extreme pain and one no pain.

This measure of pain is subjective. Construct validity could be used to test whether the doctor was measuring pain and not something like numbness or anxiety or other similar factors.

With a proper construct validity defined we can then examine construct ability, or a measure of how well the test might measure the construct.

This allows the researcher to perform a systematic analysis of how well designed the research actually is.

The idea of construct validity is extremely valuable in social sciences, especially when there is a lot of subjectivity in experiments. Many units of measurement are subjective, even measurable ones such as IQ.

Most researchers test the construct validity before the main research. This might involve something like a pilot study or even some kind of pre-test in an educational study where researchers get test results from two distinct groups, one with the construct and one without.

Another option is an intervention study, where a group with low scores in the construct might be tested then taught the construct and tested again. If there is a substantial difference between the pre-and post tests they might then be analyzed with a simple statistical test to prove a good construct validity.

In the end, researchers are only human. As hard as they try they may still give cues that influence the test subjects.

Humans give clues in many ways beyond speech, including things like body language or subconsciously smiling when the subject gives the correct answer.

This can lower construct validity. To reduce this, researchers should have minimal interaction with test subjects.

 

A Take Home Message

The value of any psychological theory is judged not only by its predictive or explanatory power but also in its operational power and its power to effect change.

Knowing how to build a sense of self-efficacy and understanding how it works, provides a wonderful platform to think differently and enhance your self-belief.

Bandura said it beautifully:

Perceived self-efficacy is embedded in a broader theory of human agency that specifies the sources of self-efficacy beliefs and identifies the processes through which they produce their diverse effects.

(Bandura, 1997, 2001).

Human behavior is continually changing and manifesting according to different contexts. Self-efficacy assessments can identify different patterns as well as strengths and limitations.

All of this can lead to enhanced perception and increased self-efficacy.

Recommended Reading:

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Self Compassion Exercises for free.

If you wish to learn more, our Science of Self Acceptance Masterclass© is an innovative, comprehensive training template for practitioners that contains all the materials you’ll need to help your clients accept themselves, treat themselves with more compassion and see themselves as worthy individuals.     

 

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About the Author

Leslie Riopel, MSc., is Professor of Psychology at Northwood University. She writes on a wide range of topics at PositivePsychology.com and does research into mindfulness and meditation. Leslie’s unique blend of experiences in both real estate & psychology has allowed her to focus on fostering healthy workplaces that thrive.

Comments

  1. chioma

    hello Leslie, please can you recommend where I can get a Reading Self-efficacy Scale. your response would be really appreciated.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Chioma,

      Is your population of interest ESL readers or children? If the former, perhaps take a look at page 160 of this journal issue for a useful scale 🙂 Although I’d recommend taking a closer look at how it was developed to ensure its validity and reliability.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  2. Vedada

    Hi! I am looking for the original 8 item academic self efficacy scale by Chamers. I need the scale as well as the reliability and validity so I can’t use the one in the comments that is a combination of scales. I am looking to study perseverance and effort in addition if you have tips on the scale and reliability and validity.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Vedada,

      I think you’re after this paper (Chemers, Hu, & Garcia, 2001), which reports that the reliability of the scale (alpha coefficient) is .81. I can confirm that these items are definitely the latter eight items in this PDF here. However, Chemers and colleagues didn’t go into detail about the validation procedures they undertook, so you may need to email them to get this information.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Jacqui Moorfield

        Hi Nicole,

        I am doing a thesis looking at links between coaches perceived gender role congruity and athlete self-efficacy. I am wondering if you could help me find the Sport Self-efficacy scale (SESS)? I’ve seen it referenced a few times but can’t find the scale! Any help would be amazing.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Jacqui,

          I’ve done a bit of a search and I’m afraid I can’t seem to find it either. Your best bet will probably be contacting the creator of the scale, Mohammad Ali Besharat, who completed their PhD at the University of Tehran (email address is at the top of this paper).

          Sorry I can’t be of more help here!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  3. Tasia Thompson

    Hello,

    Thank you for this information. I was wanting to know how do I get access to the Academic Self-Efficacy scale and the scoring sheet for my research that I am conducting. I have been searching everywhere.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Tasia,

      I assume you mean Zimmerman’s scale? You can access this and use it for free here. Regarding scoring, I don’t think this scale has cut-offs for high, medium, and low levels of academic self-efficacy like some scales do. Although, you could contact the authors to check whether they have this information.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  4. Kojo Ampomah

    This is probably the most efficient platform I have ever come across in a long time. Great article and timely response to questions. Keep up with the good job.

    I have started my thesis on ‘the effects of teacher expectancy and labeling on the self-efficacy of adolescent students’.
    Have been combing online for a good questionnaire or scale for months now but to no avail. Will appreciate any scale or questionnaire you can recommend or give. Additionally, some materials and guidance to help in literature review and scoring will also be very much appreciated.
    If you don’t mind, will also appreciate an email to help me connect.
    Thank you.

    Kojo from Ghana

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Kojo,

      Glad you found this post useful. I assume you’re interested in academic self-efficacy? In that case, I’d suggest using Zimmerman’s scale (discussed in the article), which you can access here. I don’t think this scale has cut-offs for high, medium, and low levels of academic self-efficacy like some scales do. As for further reading, perhaps a good starting point would be this review on academic self-efficacy by Honicke and Broadbent (2016).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
    • Kojo Ampomah

      Thank You.

      Reply
  5. Moinuddin

    Hi,
    Thanks alot for Wonderful article & excellent support! Hats off !
    I’m a nurse and wanted to work on resilience (particularly Academic resilience), but unfortunately unable to find the relevant open access or free tool. Your kind support would be very helpful for me.
    Furthermore, I wish to have ur mentorship or help in pursuing my MSN thesis kindly.
    Very very thankful.
    Moin

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Moinuddin,

      So glad you enjoyed the article. I’d suggest checking out Cassidy’s (2016) 30-item Academic Resilience Scale for a useful, freely available resource.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  6. Issha Abaid

    Hello
    Can I use the academic self efficacy and Academic self regulated scale mentioned in your webpage? How to get permission from authors?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Issha,

      This scale by Zimmerman is publicly available to use for free. Here’s a page with a summary of the scale information and items.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  7. Lien Nguyen

    Hi Nicole,

    I am looking for a copy of this scale for my research (Self-Efficacy Survey: A new assessment tool, 2012, March 16). I am wondering if you can help give me some instructions on how to get access to a copy of the measurement? Thank you very much Nicole 🙂

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Lien,

      I’m afraid I can’t seem to find this scale online. It looks like some other scholars have attempted to get hold of this instrument by contacting the authors, but they may or may not be responsive. I’d suggest you take a look at this thread on ResearchGate, and in case you cannot contact the authors, some of the commenters make recommendations for alternative scales you might use.

      Hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  8. Jen

    Hi,
    This has been such a great article, and my school actually has used the Children’s Self-Efficacy Scale to measure the self-efficacy of our students this year. We analyzed the results of the survey, and we were wondering if there is a way we could compare our results to other middle schools. Do you have results of other schools accessible that have used the Children’s Self-Efficacy Scale that you have provided? We are a middle school, so it would be helpful to get middle school aged students if possible.
    Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jen,

      Glad you enjoyed the article. And very cool that your school has found this scale useful. I think your best bet for finding sources of comparison data would be emailing the creator of the scale, Peter Muris.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  9. Arkam

    Very well written
    Covers everything

    Reply
  10. Ayesha

    Well written helped me in my research.

    Reply
  11. Remsha

    I want these scales urgently hope to hear from you soon with author contact details as pdf file as well
    Student Self confidence ( High School students)
    Student Learning Satisfaction Scale ( High school students )
    Thanks

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Remsha,

      Happy to help! Did you happen to know the authors’ names who developed these scales/a citation? That’ll help me search for the correct ones.

      Thank you!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Remsha

        Learning satisfaction questionnaire SLSQ by Ioana Topala. Simona tomozii
        Did you have any
        Luck in finding this one?

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Thanks Remsha,

          I’ve just done a search and haven’t been able to find a publicly available copy, sorry! This scale doesn’t seem to be too widely used (yet). I think your best bet will be to contact the author to request a copy: ioana.topala@gmail.com

          And regarding your comment about learner self-confidence, take a look at Usher and Pajares’ (2008) Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated learning scale.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
          • Remsha

            I have emailed her but no response. Been mailing her from last week. 😓😓any other option?

          • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

            Hi Remsha,

            Ah, that’s tricky then. Two other options may be to drop an email to the administrative email for the department she works for at her university. Another option is to do a search for articles citing Ioana’s paper in Google Scholar. You might then find the items listed in an appendix/table. Or if any studies have done a detailed factor analysis of the scale or something like that, you could try reaching out to the corresponding author of that paper.

            Sorry I can’t be more help here!

            – Nicole | Community Manager

  12. Nisha J

    Thank you for this insightful article. I am working on a thesis on entrepreneurial self efficacy in undergraduate students. Please could you recommend a tool for this?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Nisha,

      So glad you found the article helpful. Perhaps check out McGee et al’s (2009) Entrepreneurial Self–Efficacy scale. It looks like the authors were very thorough in their development and validation of the scale, so I think it’d be a safe bet 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  13. Issha Abaid

    Good Day
    I am Mphil scholar. And I am conducting research on learning satisfaction and academic self confidence in high school students can you suggest me standardised measures for it?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Issha,

      For this sort of study, I’d check out Usher and Pajares’ (2008) Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated learning scale.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Issha Abaid

        Thanks so much for your prompt reply and guidance.

        Reply
  14. GraciAna Breaux

    Good Afternoon,
    I am looking to obtain a copy of the College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI). I have searched and found many scholarly articles which utilized the inventory but can not find the actual inventory/tool. Or, can you assist in directing me to the author to request permission to utilize the College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI).
    Thank you for your time and consideration.
    Sincerely,
    GraciAna

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi GraciAna,

      You’ll find all the items for the CSEI listed in the Appendix of this document.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  15. Sophia

    Hi Leslie & Nicole,

    Incredible article and such great responses to further our knowledge!

    I wondered if I would be able to get some guidance on studies that have looked at self-efficacy with executive function tasks?

    The area I’d like to look at is executive function/ self-regulation and potentially compare self-reported EF or self-efficacy to performance in EF tasks. I am quite acquainted with the research related to executive function, but as I am having to construct a simple two-way ANOVA (preferably replicating a study and just changing (or adding) one variable), my ideas are much bigger than what I am tasked to do! It has been difficult to find a paper to use, I’m really interested in this area of research and would like to design something well as experience for further research next year! Any guidance at all would be so greatly appreciated.

    Many thanks in advance!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Sophia,

      Thank you for your positive feedback about the article. And it sounds an interesting project you’re working on.

      So, you’re interested in a person’s self-efficacy to self-regulate, essentially? For a scale that might tap into this, maybe look at Rosenbaum’s (1980) Self-Control Schedule which taps into beliefs about one’s ability to self-regulate cognitions and feelings (see also Snyder et al., 1991 p. 290 for a discussion about this scale). You might then search within Google Scholar for articles citing Rosenbaum’s paper using terms like ‘executive function’ and ‘self-efficacy’?

      I might be able to make a better recommendation if you let me know whether you plan on running an experiment with a specific EF task?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  16. Dhanya V A

    hi,
    How to get permission to use KPCS -karitane parental self confidence scale ,to assess self efficacy of parents of infants after surgery

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Dhanya,

      You’ll find a copy of the scale and scoring information here. In the document, permission is provided to use the scale for free for clinical or research purposes.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  17. Jm Castro

    Hi i’m a psychology student, can I ask if where i could see a scale for self concept, really need it.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jim,

      Self-concept isn’t really a construct that can be measured on a scale. Note its definition (from Oxford dictionary): “An idea of the self constructed from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others.” Obviously a person can have any number of beliefs about many different aspects of the self (e.g., competence, resilience, etc.), so you might need to drill down to one of these specific aspects of self-concept to find an appropriate scale.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  18. Jm Castro

    Hi i’m a psychology student, can I ask if where i could see a revised version of emotional intelligence by schutte 1998. Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Jm,

      Could this be the scale you’re looking for by any chance? (And here is the original).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  19. Tya

    Hi, I like this article because is very good and useful.
    I’m working on my thesis and looking for an instrument about mathematics self-efficacy for senior high school, especially in the current pandemic Covid-19. Do you have any suggestions?

    Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Tya,

      I’d suggest taking a look at Nielsen & Moore’s (2003) Mathematics Self-efficacy Scale here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  20. Seyoum Tesf

    Helloo,
    I want to conduct a research on secondary school teachers’ reading and writing self efficacy and their English language proficiency. However, I have not found a tool for that. What do you advice me?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Seyoum,

      To clarify, are you interested in teachers’ self-efficacy surrounding their ability to teach reading/writing or non-native teachers’ self-efficacy surrounding their own ability to read/write (and subsequently teach) in a particular language. Let me know, and I can probably point you in the direction of a suitable scale!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  21. Erlyn

    hello can I use your academic self-efficacy and efficacy for self-regulated learning scale adopted from Zimmerman, Bandura, & Martinez-Pons, 1992; Chemers, Hu, & Garcia, 2001 for academic purpose only.
    And also can I know how to interpret the scale. hope you can reply!
    thank u so much
    – erlyn

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Erlyn,

      The scale is freely available to use, so you shouldn’t need written permission from the creators (you can access the scales here).

      Regarding scoring, it can be tricky to get this information about scoring interpretation sometimes. It tends to be more common for scales that are applied in clinical settings (e.g., the Beck Depression Inventory), but these cut-offs (e.g., for high, medium, and low levels of a variable) do not always exist outside of clinical settings. I’d say your best bet would be to reach out to the first authors of the scales to see if they have any information on this.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  22. Michaela Chmelová

    Hello! I want to thank you for a great article! 🙂
    I did a lot of research, but I can not find a good and accessible tool for measure social self-efficacy. Can you please recommend something?

    Thank you so much!

    Best regards,

    Michaela

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Michaela,

      Glad you enjoyed the post! Maybe take a look at Smith & Betz’s (2000) Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  23. Barb

    Greetings! After much review, I am still searching to determine a good general self-efficacy scale that specifically uses the Bandura’s four (4) sources of self-efficacy and not focused specifically on Mastery only like NGSES. Is there a “long form” self-efficacy scale based on the four sources that can be recommended?
    Kindly, Barb

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Barb,

      Thanks for your question. I think a few commenters may be serarching for something similar! I might suggest reaching out to Robert Muretta who prepared a thesis on this topic and appears to have designed a measurement instrument assessing these four antecedents of self-efficacy.

      Hoep this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  24. Mahmoud Allababneh

    Hello Nicole,
    Greetings, I would like to thank you and I ask you for a big favor. I have just started to write a paper entitled ” Examining the effect of online learning implementation amidst the pandemic on students’ academic self-confidence” I am still confused between using the term academic confidence or using academic self-efficacy. I am planning to write about the factors that hinder and improve the students’ academic success.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Mahmoud,

      The difference between the terms self-efficacy and confidence when used by psychologists is pretty negligible. If you were to conduct research assessing the construct ‘academic confidence’ it would be an intuitive choice to assess/operationalize this using an ‘academic self-efficacy’ scale. You can read more about the difference between these terms here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  25. dhifa

    hi i have been looking for academic self-efficacy for high school students scales (specifically academic not the general one) everywhere but can’t seem to find it, will you help me out preferably the ones constructed or underlies by Bandura or Zajacova? thanks a bunch

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Dhifa,

      Zajacova’s work on self-efficacy uses a custom-developed scale with a population of college students, so I’m not sure this would be ideal for a study with high school students. And the only one developed by Bandura (that I’m aware of) is the Zimmerman one described in the post. Did you have any other information about the details of the scale that may point us in the right direction?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  26. Aidil

    Hello, if I want to use the academic self-efficacy scale by Zimmerman, do I need to get the permission from the person in charge? if I do, may I know who can I contact?

    Thank you in advance

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Aidil,

      Zimmerman’s scale is freely available to use and can be accessed here. You should not need permission from the authors to use it.

      Best of luck with your project!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Cynthia Cecilia Turner-Rhaburn

        Hi. I have tried the link for Zimmerman and it does not work. Can you advise? Urgently in need of this academic self-efficacy scale.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Cynthia,

          I’m sorry the link isn’t working for you. Here’s another page with a summary of the scale information.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  27. Kimberly Ann S. Cantilero

    Hi Ma’am,

    I am Kimberly Ann S. Cantilero, I am currently doing my dissertation entitled ” “Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Its Effects on Learners’ Academic Achievement and Self-efficacy.” My participants are ages 18 years old. I would like to ask if you have an applicable test for my study? Thank you very much and Godbless you! 🙂

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Kimberly,

      May I ask: Is your interest in 18-year-olds’ general self-efficacy across all life domains or self-efficacy as it relates to their studies/academic achievements?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Kimberly Ann Cantilero

        Thank you for your response Miss Nicole, yes 18 yrs old and better if I have both the general self efficacy across all life domains and self-efficacy related to academic performance. Thank you very much! 🙂

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Kimberly,

          Thanks for the clarification. For general self-efficacy, I imagine you’ll be safe to use Bandura’s GSE scale as it should easily be comprehensible and applicable to 18-year-olds. For academic self-efficacy, take a look at Table 10 of this thesis, which contains the items from Chemers and colleagues’ (2001) academic self-efficacy scale, targeted at college-student-aged kids.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  28. Özlem

    Hi.
    I would like to develop a scale for students’ STEM self-efficacy. And I want to base this scale on Bandura’s three key features of self-efficacy. These; cognitive processes, emotional
    processes and inspection process. Is there a scale previously developed based on these sub-dimensions? I did not find it. And do you think it is correct to base these titles on? I would be glad if you help.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Özlem,

      I am familiar with Bandura’s focus on cognitive and affective processes, but I’m not familiar with his discussion of ‘inspection’ processes. Did you have a source for this? Overall, I’m not sure there is a scale that comprises the particular subdomains you’ve listed. If you can’t find one via a review of the literature, you may need to develop one using Bandura’s guidelines.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Özlem

        Hi.
        Thank you very much for your answer.
        I’m sorry I expressed it wrong. It is not “inspection”, it is “control”. You know; Bandura (1989) examined the basic characteristics underlying self-efficacy under the titles of cognitive processes, affective processes and control process. I wan’t to create items base on these features. Can I make it?
        What is Bandura’s guidelines? Where can I find these? Please help me for it.

        Reply
          • Özlem

            Hi again.
            Thank you for the article. But I did not find the features in Banadura guidelines. So I’m worried about how I can construct a scale based on Bandura’s features (cognitive processes, affective processes and control process). It is very important for my thesis. I created items based on STEM disciplines (Science,Technology, Math, Engineering). But I want to change this. What do you think should I create the STEM self-efficacy scale items on the basis? Can you help me for this.
            Thank you.

          • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

            Hi Özlem,

            Ah, sorry, I thought you were referring to the technical aspects of scale construction. Unfortunately, I’m not familiar enough with Bandura’s theory to know whether and in what way he links cognitive, affective, and control processes to self-efficacy. However, I’ve got no doubt these play into behaviors associated with education in STEM fields.

            If you’re planning to construct a scale with subscales based on these three features, it’ll be important that you can point to a clear source from Bandura saying that self-efficacy can manifest in the form of changes in cognitive, affective, and control processes. Then you can extrapolate from this to reason why changes in these three features should be reflective of STEM self-efficacy, too. But you need that source.

            At face value, self-efficacy appears to be about self-belief and expectancy judgments. I would expect that these expectancy judgments should flow on to affect a person’s affective states and self-control behaviors, suggesting that self-efficacy is antecedent to some of these things you list. This makes me wonder whether constructing a ‘self-efficacy’ scale based on these features would be straying beyond the domain of the construct — but again, if you’ve read otherwise somewhere in Bandura’s work, go with what he says!

            – Nicole | Community Manager

  29. Pari

    Hi,
    I really appreciate your article. I am currently enrolled in BS Psychology programme and have selected a very significant topic ‘relationship of self-esteem and self-efficacy among learning disabled students at primary schools’. But I am facing some difficulty regarding self-efficacy scale for children at primary level. Kindly recommend some scale.
    Thank You

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Pari,

      Glad you enjoyed the post. You’ll find some guidance on selecting/designing self-efficacy scales for administration with children in Bandura’s book, Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (2006). See Chapter 14 and do a search for the word ‘child’. There is a scale in the Appendix (Children’s Self-Efficacy Scale) that might do the job!

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Daphne Ng

        Hi !
        I’m am currently completing my requirement for my Master’s. my thesis is entitled “Nurses Readiness and Self efficacy in the Direct care of COVID 19: Input to Staff Development Program “
        Do you have any suggestions how to measure Self efficacy among nurses?
        Thank you !
        Your reply will be much appreciated..

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Daphne,

          If you do a search for “nurse self-efficacy scale” in Google scholar, you’ll find several validated scales that may meet your needs. A couple of measures that look promising include Stump, Husman, & Brem’s (2012) Nursing Student Self-Efficacy Scale and Kennedy et al’s (2015) Nursing Competence Self-Efficacy Scale.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  30. rizka

    Hello Professor Leslie,
    I like this article because it’s about self-efficacy. I am currently completing my thesis research.
    But I want to use the “New-GSE” scale, can this scale be used to measure students’ self-efficacy in memorizing the al-qur’an ? Do you know about scales? or any suggestions prof?
    Thank you very much, Prof.
    Regards

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Rizka,

      It’s possible the New-GSE scale may be a little too general to capture confidence in one’s ability to do something as specific as memorizing a text. I would take a look at this paper by Mustaqimah (2019) who appears to have conducted similar research. If the self-efficacy scale that is used is not explicitly stated, maybe consider reaching out to the author to find out what it was. 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  31. Nilashi

    hello!
    this article was really helpful. I am above to start my Bsc dissertation and I am planning on doing self-efficacy and optimism in students’ academic performance. however, it looks like many people have already done this topic. I wanna incorporate another new variable. I would really appreciate it if you can recommend something or any suggestion for this

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Nilashi,

      Glad you found the post helpful! I’d recommend taking a look at this review by Usher and Pajares (2008). In their discussion of future research directions, they should point you toward topics in this area that require more research, and that should help you pick variables/research questions that stand to make a contribution to the literature.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  32. Adam Rappoport

    Good Day,
    I am completing my Doctoral research proposal involving single gender education, Perception of science, Stereotype threat, and self efficacy among High school students (Focusing on high school seniors). I found a good one, but I cannot locate the author via any contact info.

    Stereotype threat and self efficacy is what I am having problems finding. Any Suggestions?

    Thank you in advance

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Adam,

      Sorry, I’m not sure I understand your question. Are you looking for a particular research paper on the topic of stereotype threat and self-efficacy or general recommendations for research on the topic. Also is the topic regarding girls and STEM topics in particular? If yes, you might find this paper by Shapiro and Williams (2011) helpful!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  33. dhifa

    Hello there, I am currently conducting a research on self efficacy and self-regulated learning.
    I am planning to use scale by Pintrich & de Groot (1990), called Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire but then some researchers stated that they’re using a modified version of the scale (1993) and I can’t seem to find the file. Will you help me out find the modified version of the MSLQ scale? Thanks a bunch.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi dhifa,

      That’s a tricky one. For anyone else reading, you’ll find the original manual for the MSLQ here. Regarding the modified version, this paper by Soemantri et al. (2018) might be what you’re looking for. They detail how they modified all the items in Table 1 of the paper.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  34. Bavithra

    I request you to send me two standardized tools of self-efficacy with description(link)

    Self-Efficacy Scale of Sherer and Maddux (1982)
    self efficacy scale by mathur and bhatnagar(2012)

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Bavithra,

      You’ll find the paper abstract (a description of the validation procedures and scale) of Sherer & Maddux (1982) here. You might need to contact the original creators for the second scale as I cannot seem to find it in a search.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Bavithra

        Thank you so much madam

        Reply
  35. A. Smith

    Hi,

    I really enjoyed your article and its great that you respond to everyone asking for advice. I was wondering what scale you would recommend when conducting an enquiry looking into the teachers perceptions of the impact of learner conferencing on learner self-efficacy?

    Thanks!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi A. Smith,

      Glad you enjoyed the article. By learning conferencing, do you mean online teaching methods (through Zoom, etc.)? If yes, I’ve just done a search in Google scholar for “online learning self-efficacy” which has returned a lot of results. For instance, Shen et al. (2013) have a multidimensional conceptualization of learner self-efficacy (operationalized as a multidimensional scale). At a minimum, you may find one or more of these subscales to be relevant, or perhaps you can adapt them for your own research.

      I hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  36. Robert Motley

    Where can I find information or article citation for the developer of the following scale you highlight:

    Parental Self-Efficacy

    This is a questionnaire that is designed to help one gain a better understanding of the kinds of things that make it challenging for parents to influence their children’s school activities.

    The questionnaire measures efficacy to influence school activities.

    The 8-page survey includes questions such as:

    How much can you do to make your children see school as valuable?
    How much can you do to help your children get good grades in school?
    How much can you do to help your children keep physically fit?
    How much can you do to prevent your children from getting in with the wrong crowds of friends?
    How much can you do to prevent your children from becoming involved in drugs or alcohol?
    How much can you do to influence what is taught in your children’s school?
    How well can you keep tough problems from getting you down?
    How well can you overcome discouragement when nothing you try seems to work?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Robert,

      This scale comes from a thesis by Deborah Stover (2013). You can find the details here (and the scale in the appendix).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  37. bavithra

    I am M Ed scholar. I am beginner to do dissertation. So I am very afraid about it. Due to this lockdown period I am unable to contact my professors to ask doubts. So kindly send me reply please.
    My question is: I selected the topic “Measuring self-efficacy for prospective teachers” Is this right or I have to do any modification in this topic .
    After your reply I want to ask further doubts .So kindly give reply .

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Bavithra,

      Understandable that you would be experiencing nerves in the lead-up to commencing your dissertation, but congratulations on taking the first steps! It’s difficult for me to comment on whether this is an appropriate topic based on the title of the thesis alone. Judging by it, it reads as though you may be developing a measurement instrument to assess new teachers’ self-efficacy in their ability to teach? If so, whether or not this is a ‘right’ topic will depend on whether it stands to make a contribution to the literature — does a scale like this already exist, or no? And how will having such a scale help move science forward. I’d encourage you as much as possible to explore these questions with your supervisor when you are able to contact them, and know that the specific direction of your study will likely change as the research evolves (that’s always how it goes, especially as a student!)

      I hope this helps and alleviates some of your concerns.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Bavithra

        Thank you for your reply mam. No such supervisor allotted for me yet. Also I have less time to do my dissertation. So please guide me through your suggestions mam. Before entering to do dissertation what are all the things I have to do? I reveal my idea about my dissertation. I want to identify B. Ed., student’s General Self -Efficacy level using the standardized tool “Gilad Chen and team (2001)”. I have planned my research’s sample size 150 to 180 B. Ed Students of my college. So please suggest topics relates to General Self-Efficacy based on B. Ed students. I don’t even know whether my question was right or wrong. So kindly reply for my queries mam.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Bavithra,

          Ah, I understand. In that case, the next question you might want to ask may regard your predictor variable(s). That is, what factors do you think may influence GSE among your population? This could be a high-level research question, or you could drill down to ask something more specific, such as, “What is the impact of COVID-19 on B. Ed. students’ GSE?” or “How do resources in the academic environment (e.g., social support, administrative support, library resources, etc.) influence students’ GSE?”

          In other words, a good starting point to take to your prospective supervisor are research questions such as these which specify possible relationships among your key variables.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  38. Danielle

    Hello! I have read through all of your posts and am amazed at how helpful you are in your responses.

    I am working on my dissertation proposal and am looking for an academic self-efficacy survey. My study is focused on early literacy skills for struggling readers and/or dyslexia.

    Do you have any advice?

    Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Danielle,

      If you look up ‘literacy self-efficacy’ in Google Scholar, you should find some papers applying different options. One that might be suitable is that developed by Huang et al. (1999) in this paper (although its focus is on English as a second language, so it would be good to get hold of the paper and check for yourself whether it would apply to your study!)

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Danielle

        Thank you so much for your help! You are awesome!

        Reply
  39. Vicky

    Happy New Year!

    I’m looking for a validated survey instrument to measure parents’ self-efficacy for supporting their children’s foundational and early literacy development. It would be helpful if it helps to identify self-efficacy toward specific domains of literacy.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Vicky,

      That’s a tricky one! I’m not aware of any specific scales focused on parents’ self-efficacy when helping children with early literacy development. However, my advice for commencing a search would be to look into studies about parents’ ‘homework involvement’ (i.e., try out these keywords in Google Scholar). You may find studies applying scales that tap into parents’ confidence (or lack of) in their ability to support their child’s learning in this context, and you may be able to adapt the wording to apply to your research.

      Worst case scenario, you may need to follow Bandura’s guidelines to develop a scale for yourself.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  40. Sheila Ransburg -Wood

    Good Morning
    I am currently a doctoral student at the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor in Belton, Texas. I would like to use the Academic Self-Efficacy survey for some qualitative research that I am conducting for my dissertation. The International Review Board, is requesting that I get permission to use this survey. Would you be so kind as to grant me permission to use the ASE survey?
    Thank you for any consideration that you may give to this matter.
    Sheila

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Sheila,

      While we are not the creators of the scale (it’s by Zimmerman and colleagues), the scale is freely available to use and can be accessed here.

      Best of luck with your research!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Sheila Ransburg -Wood

        Thank you!

        Reply
  41. Angeleena

    Hello, I’m conducting a study on influence of self-efficacy on locus of control, please recommend which self-efficacy test I must use.
    I also require Self-efficacy Survey scale(SES). Can I have a copy of the same?
    Thank you.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Angeleena,

      Thank you for your comment. Could you please provide a little more information — I’m unsure if you are looking for a specific self-efficacy scale or a recommendation. If the latter, could you please let me know a little about the context of your study? E.g., are you interested in generalized self-efficacy or self-efficacy in a particular context (e.g., education)? Thank you. 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  42. Kehinde Abdullahi

    Hello Leslie,

    Please, am working on the impact of the flipped classroom model on students self-efficacy. Can you please recommend a suitable scale to use in this regards? Thanks as I look forward to your reply soon

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Kehinde,

      I’d check out this paper by Namaziandost & Cakmak (2020) to see which measure they have used (it appears to be from an author named ‘Greene’). Perhaps this might be suitable for you, but it depends whether you are looking to assess self-efficacy regarding general academic outcomes (in which case, finding a scale should be fairly straightforward). If you’re looking to find a scale assessing self-efficacy as it specifically relates to working in a flipped-classroom situation, it could be trickier!

      Hope this helps.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  43. Sergej Ajdinovic

    Hello, I am working on intervention which is aimed towards cyberbyllying in primary and middle schools. What Self-Efficacy Questionnaire would be appropriate to use in this sphere? Maybe about emotional self efficacy or? Thank you very much for this article and for your response. Kind regards.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Sergej,

      I might need more information to make a recommendation. Are you looking to tap into self-efficacy to handle your emotions (e.g., the emotional pain) if you are a victim of cyberbullying? Or are you more interested in victims’ perceived self-efficacy around defending themselves in cyberbullying situations?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  44. Michelle

    Hi, I am currently starting my thesis on science self-efficacy in the primary classroom. Which instrument would be best to use with 7-11 year olds and can the questions be adapted to science specific self-efficacy? Also, do I need permission from the author to use one of these instruments within my study?

    Thank you,
    Michelle

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Michelle,

      This paper by Aslan (2012). Applies a sub-scale from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (see page 13 here) with a sample of primary school students, so you might be able to apply it to your study in a similar way. You should be fine to use these scales without contacting the authors as they are in the public domain. 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  45. Jaycee

    I would just like to ask…What age is valid to answer self-efficacy questionnaires?..particularly on academic self-efficacy…Thank you !

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Jaycee,

      That’s a great question! I’m guessing you’d like to administer a self-efficacy questionnaire to a young population? I can’t give you a definitive answer as it will depend on the scale. If you will be designing (or selecting) a scale yourself, I would suggest seeing whether you can draw on established evidence re: expected reading/word comprehension levels for your target age group. Identify whether there are any words or phrases in your scale that a child may not be able to understand, and see how your best guess compares against this established evidence.

      Alternatively, when in doubt, always pilot test! I hope this helps.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  46. Melissa Lund

    Hello,

    What self-efficacy tool would you recommend for a human mental health simulation? The purpose is to evaluate if there is a decrease in the anxiety of students interacting with patients before their hospital clinical?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Melissa,

      Thank you for your question. I’ll flag that (high) self-efficacy and (low) anxiety are conceptually different constructs. You can be anxious about interacting with a patient while still feeling efficacious (i.e., confident that you have the necessary skills), so just be wary of that! But, assuming you’re after a self-efficacy scale, it might be a bit tricky, and whether or not a suitable scale already exists will depend on the nature of students’ responsibilities.

      You might find a useful starting point in this article by Young et al. (2012). They appear to have adapted some items from existing scales and worked them into a scale that may be useful (you may need to reach out to the authors to get access to it).

      I hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  47. thomas.lundeberg

    Dear Leslie,

    We are running a a state financed Insurance medicine unit at Danderyds University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden.
    About 40% of our patients are suffering from chronic pain, 20% of chronic stress conditions including post covid patients and 40% are suffering from psychiatric disorders.
    Which of the self-efficacy scales would you recomend.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Thomas,

      Regarding self-efficacy when managing chronic pain, take a look at the Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. For stress, take a look at the Stress Management Self-Efficacy Scale (cited here). For psychiatric disorders, I might need more information. E.g., what kinds of disorders, and is the focus regarding self-efficacy to manage medication and doctors appointments, continue working/daily routine, etc.?

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  48. Ririn Khayana

    Hi Professor Leslie,
    I love this article because about self efficacy. I’m currently finishing my thesis research. But I want to use the “My Life Self Efficacy” scale. Do you know about the scale? and I hope I could use that scale.
    Thank you very much, Prof.
    Regards

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Ririn,

      Glad to see that you enjoyed the article. Yes, it’s a little tricky to find information on that scale. I’d suggest reaching out to the creator, Laurie Powers, to see if you can get the scale from her.

      Good luck with your research!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  49. Prashiela Henderson

    correction – perceived self-efficacy

    Reply
  50. Prashiela Henderson

    Hi,

    I am looking to study the self-efficacy of frontline nurses as informal leaders among their peers. Do you have suggestions for an appropriate tool?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Prashiela,

      I’d suggest taking a look at this paper by Cziraki and colleagues (2018) to check how they measured leadership self-efficacy. It’s like they would have used scale suitable to be adapted for your research. 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  51. Rowie

    Hello. Is there an interpretation for the academic self-efficacy? I can’t seem to find one. Thank you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Rowie,

      Could you please clarify what you mean by ‘interpretation’? Do you mean scoring or scale anchors, or cut-offs for low, medium, and high levels of academic self-efficacy? Let us know, and I’ll see if I can’t point you in the right direction. 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  52. Charmi Tailor

    Hi, Can I am doing a research on academic self efficacy among final year engineering students and looking upon their assignments and internships could you recommend me a suitable scale?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Charmi,

      I would suggest taking a look at the items used in this paper by Marra and colleagues (2013) — specifically those in the LAESE. You may be able to reach out to the authors to obtain the full scale.

      I hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  53. Dawn

    I am a DNP Student. Can you recommend a tool to measure Self efficacy on diversity training?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Dawn,

      I’d suggest checking out the measure used in the following study by Combs and Luthans (2007). You may be able to adapt it for use in your own study.

      I hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  54. Eviza

    Hello, I am doing my master’s research about science teacher’s self-efficacy in applying STEM, would you like to recommend the scale that I can use? Thank you.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Eviza,

      At face value, I’d suggest checking whether Bandura’s Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale will meet your needs. However, if you need to really dig into teachers’ self-efficacy when teaching niche scientific principles, you may need to design and validate your own scale.

      As Bandura notes, there is rarely a one-size fits all self-efficacy scale when it comes to narrower fields of research/topics!

      I hope this helps and best of luck!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  55. Myline T. Davad

    hello. I am conducting a research about math self efficacy but i cant find a questionnaire. Can I download a questionnaire?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Myline,

      I’d suggest taking a look at Nielsen & Moore’s (2003) Mathematics Self-efficacy Scale here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  56. Micha

    Hello, this article is very insightful.
    By the way, I am Micha from Philippines. I am currently pursuing a study that in need of a teacher self efficacy instrument. I was planning to utilize Bandura’s Instrument Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. Is it available for public use (non commercial use)? And how is the scoring done using this instrument?
    Thanks for the response.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Micha,

      Glad you enjoyed the article. Yes, this scale is freely available to use (and can be accessed here). To score it, you just sum the total score for each of the seven subscales (efficacy to influence decision making, efficacy to influence school resources, instructional efficacy, disciplinary efficacy, efficacy to enlist parental involvement, efficacy to enlist community involvement, and efficacy to create a positive school climate).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Micha

        Wow! Your response was indeed very helpful for the realization of my study. I couldn’t thank you enough.
        Meanwhile, may I ask more details about the psychometric properties (validity, reliability,etc.) of the Bandura’s Instrument Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale?
        Your response is well-appreciated.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Micha,

          I’ve had a quick search for a validation study/a study looking at the scale’s psychometric properties and cannot find one, so I would suggest reaching out to the creators via Bandura’s website (see the bottom of the website for the contact email).

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  57. lauren

    Good morning, I am doing my DNP project on a simulation/clinical vignettes education system. we would like to measure self efficacy and knowledge. which self efficacy scale would work best? I was looking at the self-efficacy in discipline scale, but then couldn’t find any research studies that had used it in the past!

    Thanks in advance,
    Lauren

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Lauren,

      It’s difficult for me to comment on which self-efficacy scale will work best for your project. As Bandura notes, there is no one all-purpose self-efficacy scale, so depending on how niche the subject-matter you’re working with is, you may need to construct your own. E.g., if you need to understand in fine detail how self-efficacious your participants would feel when performing specific behaviors described in your vignettes etc., you may need a custom scale. However, you may also be able to adapt/apply a more general measure used in experimental research. E.g., you’ll find that some experimental studies will pause an activity (like a simulation) at various intervals and then use a single-item or short measure of self-efficacy asking something like “How confident are you in your ability to manage this situation?” If that sort of thing sounds like it might work, definitely do a search through the experimental literature on self-efficacy for scales/items.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Xyrix Gapasin

        Hi Nicole. I’m currently studying Methods of Research and student self-efficacy is one of my variable. But it is difficult for me to find questionnaire with indicators related to it. I wish you could help me.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Xyrix,

          In addition to Zimmerman’s student self-efficacy scale listed in the post, here’s another more recent one by Fertman and Primack (2009). I recommend going to Google Scholar and entering the query ‘student self-efficacy’ (retaining the inverted commas) paired with the word ‘scale’ or ‘questionnaire’. This should return papers using a range of different scales targeted at different populations (e.g., elementary school students, nursing school students, etc.) Again, use more keywords to narrow down your target.

          Hope this helps and good luck with your research!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
      • lauren

        How would we create our own scale? is there a draft to follow? This part is so tricky!

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Lauren,

          If you’re looking to create a psychometrically sound scale (that would satisfy scholars), I’d suggest taking a look at the following two resources for some comprehensive guides:

          – Scale Development: Theory and Applications by Robert DeVellis (2016)
          – A Review of Scale Development Practices in the Study of Organizations by Hinkin (1995)

          Scale development (and validation in particular) can be pretty time-consuming, unfortunately, and usually requires that you validate your scale against more than one dataset.

          Ultimately, the more of the steps you can carry out (e.g., item generation involving subject-matter experts, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis) the better!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  58. Steven Schott

    I am doing research for a college psychology research class and I want to study STEM self-efficacy. I have read several studies that measure STEM self-efficacy but I can never find access to their instruments. Is there a STEM self-efficacy measure that is available for me to use? I would be administering it to college students. Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Steven,

      Tricky! I’ve had a quick look and it appears that some researchers in this area use general academic self-efficacy scales but with a lead-in to the questions that invites the respondent to think about their STEM subjects in particular. E.g., I’d suggest combining a search of Zimmerman’s academic self-efficacy scale with STEM-related keywords to see how it has been used in this context.

      I actually struggled to find a scale exclusively for STEM-related self-efficacy (the closest I could find was about mathematics).

      Hope this helps a little!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  59. Tiffany Vickers

    Hello, I am looking for the 11 item Strengths Self Efficacy Scale. When I search online I find a scale that has 34 items. Is one more preferred? Does anyone have access to an 11 item scale? How are the scale(s) scored?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Tiffany,

      Take a look at Table 2 of this paper — I think this is the 11-item scale you are looking for (and the paper includes information on scoring). I couldn’t tell you whether one scale is preferred or not without taking a closer look at the paper, but an argument for adopting the shorter scale is that 34 items may overburden your respondents, as that’s a lot of items!

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  60. Margaret Bishop

    Hi
    I am in the process of searching for a self-efficacy scale in my research of a qualitative case study with my focus of 20 special education teachers self-efficacy and how it influences instructional strategies of 11th and 12th grade special needs students engagement with their general education peers. While previous research such as Shoulders and Scott-Krei, (2015) study found highly-efficacious teachers were sufficiently important, and there was a difference in female and male general education teachers’ efficacy which found male teachers were more efficacious. There was no research on special education teachers who are now in general education classes and their self-efficacy can be explored in my research as well as use a 60-minute interview and questionnaire; only I am in search of a self-efficacy scale for this study to determine special education teachers’ self-efficacy first. Help, please. Thank you.
    Reference
    Shoulders, T. L., & Scott-Krei, M. (2015). Rural secondary educators’ perceptions of their efficacy in the inclusive classroom. Rural Special Education, 35(1). 23-30. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=a0a0707d-b1f2-4d8e-b800-25c934cf60ed%40sessionmgr101

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Margaret,
      Sometimes it’s tricky to find scales for use with specific niche populations. A lot of times, researchers will adapt existing scales to do the job or need to validate their own. This paper appears to have used the Teachers’ Sense of Self-efficacy scale with a population of teachers in a special education institution, so perhaps you can draw inspiration from what these authors have done.
      Best of luck with your research.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  61. Alice Cardenas

    Professor Riopel, Thank you so much for your informative article, I was wondering if you have access to a Leadership self efficacy measure/scale, and scoring directions or you could suggest where to search. I am a PhD candidate looking for a reliable measure for my dissertation, thank you ever so much!
    Alice Cardenas, AMFT

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Alice,
      Perhaps take a look at this measure and see whether it’s the kind of thing you’re looking for? Hope this helps!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Alice Cardenas

        Hi Nicole, Thank you for sending the link and yes, I actually found it after posting my request and could use in my study of women and racial minorities in positions of leadership. Have a wonderful day!

        Reply
    • Meika

      Where were you able to find, I am having a difficulty in looking for it.

      Reply
      • K

        Check the link provided by Nicole; the scale is available in the Appendix (pp. 23-24).

        Reply
  62. Lebo makobe-Rabothata

    I am interested in using the Self-efficacy questionnaire for children in South Africa. Can I get more information on the administration process, scoring and validating the instrument?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Lebo,

      You can find the children’s self-efficacy scale here. Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Anne

        I would love to also review this information for an online tool I am looking to build to help middle school teachers. However, the links are giving errors. Can you re-share? Thanks.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Anne,

          Thanks for bringing this to my attention. Here’s the updated link (and we’ll get this updated in-text soon).

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  63. pedro

    Can be another way of measuring the students’ self-efficacy, besides a likert scale or a questionnaire?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Pedro,
      Thank you for your question. It’s tricky, because self-efficacy is such a personal experience, and questionnaires are usually the best way to access highly subjective internal experiences. An alternative, however, might be to take a more qualitative approach by interviewing the person.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  64. Edgar

    Hi Leslie!
    First I would like to thank you for this article. I’m a PhD candidate and I’m trying to find the self-efficacy scale for exercise, to get an authorization to validate the scale in my country. I’ll appreciate your help with that. Thanks!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Edgar,
      I’d check out the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale by Kroll et al. (2007). The paper is available for free to read on ResearchGate so you can check out its psychometric properties. I believe Albert Bandura also developed an exercise self-efficacy scale you may want to Google.
      Good luck with your PhD!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  65. Anthony Jones

    I am a researcher and I am interested in the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale for Students (Zimmerman). Could you send me the info?

    Reply
  66. Shideh

    I am a researcher interested in self-efficacy and COPE scales. Can you please send them to me?
    Thanks.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Shideh,

      You can find Carver’s 2013 COPE inventory here, and could you let me know which specific self-efficacy scale you are looking for? That way I can link you to it.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  67. Suhana

    Do u have academic self efficacy scale for students by Zimmerman or any reference for that??

    Reply
  68. Iacob Bianca

    Do you have the children s self efficacy scale ?
    Please, send me! ?

    Reply
  69. Joy Kabasindi

    Response Format
    1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither agree or disagree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree. To calculate a score, one would take the average of all of the responses. A higher score indicates a greater self-efficacy
    What exactly is a higher score? Should it be like having a mean score of 4 and above ? Please help me understand the meaning of higher in the context of a 5 point scale.
    Thank you

    Reply
  70. aviv

    Good day! Thank you very much for your article! Can you recommend an article and/or questionnaire using self- efficacy measurements for disabled children?

    Reply
    • Amal

      Hi
      Do you have any academi self-efficacy cale for students , Zimmerman ,Bandura or other?? Please I need it for my PhD thesis.

      Reply
      • Nicole Celestine

        Hi Amal,
        I believe you can find Zimmerman and Bandura’s (1992) student self-efficacy scale here. Hope this helps!
        – Nicole | Community Manager

        Reply
  71. Manjiri

    I want to do comparative study of self efficacy: home makers and working women , which scale is suitable?

    Reply
  72. Muhammad Tariq

    Hi
    Can you recommend a self efficacy tool for sportsmen and non sports men students for high school boys.

    Reply
    • Annelé Venter

      Hi Muhammad
      Please view the comments and responses further down for an answer to your question.

      Reply
  73. Muhammad Tariq

    Good day. Could i have a copy of this instrument? My sincerest thanks. God bless.
    I am also working on self efficacy.

    Reply
      • Angel Bantayan

        Hi. I would like to ask how we can determine the low, medium and high self-efficacy scorers using this scale. Thank you

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Angel,

          This depends on the scale. But generally I’d recommend getting in touch with the corresponding author on the paper validating the scale to ask if they have information about these cut-offs.

          Sorry I can’t be more helpful!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  74. Rita Dyer

    Hi
    Can you recommend a self efficacy tool for teens in Math. Really great article.

    Reply
  75. yen Daenerys

    Good day! Can you recommend a questionnaire for academic self- efficacy beliefs?
    I really love the article!
    -yen 🙂

    Reply
  76. Shah

    could i use this Bandura’s self-efficacy scale for measuring the just the decision-making self-efficacy. “Not the career decision-making self-efficacy”

    Reply
    • Leslie Riopel

      To answer your question, yes I believe you can use the self-efficacy scale for any area, including decision-making. I hope that helps!

      Reply
  77. Bruce Highfield

    Hi Leslie
    Could you recommend a SE questionnaire for athletes.
    Loved the article,
    Regards Bruce

    Reply
  78. Lubna Shah

    Hi,
    your article is very good. I’m working on the related topic”writing Self-efficacy”.
    from where i can get a pdf copy of this article.
    Regards,
    Lubna Shah

    Reply
  79. Alicia Aydlett

    Thank you

    Reply
  80. Jemerson

    Good day. Could i have a copy of this instrument? My sincerest thanks. God bless.
    Jemerson (from the Philippines)

    Reply

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