What is the GROW Coaching Model? (incl. Questions + Examples)

grow coaching modelCoaching is a beautiful, collaborative process between coach and client.

Being effective in this profession does take a certain amount of skill beyond being a good listener.

Asking the right types of questions to a client for them to have a personal insight into their own growth is the overall goal. Having a framework for those types of questions is incredibly helpful in the field.

The GROW model is one of the most popular of these coaching frameworks. The approach can be used in a wide variety of coaching modalities. Come along to learn more about this approach to coaching leadership and personal development.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values, and self-compassion, and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students, or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

What is the Grow Coaching Model?

This framework for coaching was developed in the 1980s by Sir John Whitmore and his colleagues at Performance Consultants International. He wrote the book Coaching for Performance that has been widely used for decades. Seeking to find a more effective way to lead in business, GROW was developed to create stronger leaders. The approach has helped improve performance across the globe.

GROW is an acronym that is laid out as follows:

G – Goal (aspirations)
R – Reality (current obstacles or situations)
O – Options (strengths, resources)
W – Way Forward (accountability and personal actions) (What, When, by Whom and the WILL to do it)

This model takes goal setting to a higher level. Well set goals are inspirational and challenging. When reaching for a broader goal perspective with this approach, leaders are more productive, self-motivated, and fulfilled.

Coaches aren’t viewed as having the answers for their clients. Effective coaches ask the powerful questions that open their clients up to their own potential within this solution-focused framework. Empowered people don’t need someone else to have the solutions; they are given opportunities to find solutions for themselves.

This model is frequently used in organizations. When it is utilized, the culture of the organization is one that allows growth for all employees, starting with leaders. Establishing a coaching culture helps hold people accountable for their actions in all directions.

Finding clarity around a goal allows for the structure of GROW to begin with what matters first. This type of clarity helps an individual or a group to envision the steps required for forward movement. This structure opens people up to broader goals and enables them to find a personal connection to that goal.

A desired change can tow emotional reactions with it. The Reality stage of GROW allows people to explore their motivational connection to the goal. This part of the structure allows for the exploration of strengths and how they will support forward movement.

In the Options stage of the GROW model, people are supported as they brainstorm various strategies to meet the needs of the goal. It is a vital stage to allow participants’ imagination to roam. It can be incredibly fun to imagine an unlimited budget, and with it, resourcefulness is brought forward.

After the process of generating abundant options, the Way forward portion of the GROW model harnesses the client’s will to create action plans. During this phase, a coach can find out what their client is actually willing to do to move toward their goal. This phase creates opportunities for accountability and structure for tracking future progress.

It is recommended that the most coaching session time be spent in the Goal and Reality phases when utilizing this model. When goals and reality get thoroughly explored, deeper vision helps clients to move forward more easily. This model doesn’t have to be absolutely linear. Revising the first two phases is sometimes helpful in sparking higher commitment to goals and actions.

 

6 Examples of the Grow Coaching Model

management grow coachingThe GROW model can be used in a variety of settings.

The framework allows for adaptability in creating coaching cultures. Once this culture becomes the norm, this framework allows for people to work and live together more harmoniously and productively.

 

1. Management/ Organizations

Every leader should know some form of coaching skills. The GROW model is terrific for creating a scaffolding for building employee growth potential. The structure allows for the coachee to lead the conversation and will enable the manager to better understand the employee’s personal connection to goals.

A coaching culture provides the opportunity for employees to feel heard through improved communication skills. It also develops rapport and camaraderie within an organization. Human beings who are more connected to a common goal will move toward that goal with better results.

 

2. Individual

Coaching the individual allows for a safe space to explore personal motivation toward growth concerning goals. GROW can be used as a framework for any type of goal. Personal development can occur in any setting, whether it’s business, health, or any other area where obstacles need to be overcome.

 

3. Group or Team

The GROW model can be utilized in a team or group setting to clarify team goals better. Building teamwork through group coaching is a powerful way to initiate team motivation toward common goals, as well as improving morale. Group coaching helps to get everyone on the same page and to define roles and personal responsibility toward team goals.

 

4. Parenting and Teaching Students

Like managers, parents and teachers should all have some form of coaching skills in their tool bag.

Communication in families can prove to be difficult if children are not able to speak their values. Utilizing a “Socratic method” type of questioning allows for kids to realize their potential and their motivation to achieve personal goals. GROW allows an easy framework to broaden children’s minds and for parents and teachers to better understand children’s perspectives.

 

5. TGROW

A variation of the GROW model that is important to note is TGROW. The T stands for Topic. Before heading straight to goals, an exploration of the topic that the coachee would like to focus on better attunes them with their expectation in a session.

From time to time, human beings need to explore a topic that is unrelated to other areas of growth. Allowing first for topic exploration gives the coachee the driver’s seat for the coaching conversation.

 

6. GROWTH

Another alteration of the GROW model adds Tactics and Habits to increase specificity toward goal attainment. The T asks questions about the specific steps the client will take toward goal achievement. The H establishes how success will be maintained.

This alteration of the GROW model allows a more precise plan to be forged. It also illuminates daily personal responsibilities and actions that one must take to stay on track.

 

40 Best Grow Model Coaching Questions

Goal

  1. What would you like to focus on today?
  2. What’s important to you at the moment?
  3. What does your ideal future look like?
  4. What will you be doing in five years?
  5. What new skills do you want to learn or develop?
  6. Where is your life out of balance?
  7. What challenges are you facing at the moment?
  8. What would make you feel that this time has been well spent?
  9. What are you currently working toward?
  10. How can you word your goal in positive language?

 

Reality

  1. What is working well at the moment?
  2. What do you need?
  3. What excuses have you always used for not achieving your goals?
  4. What have you done so far to improve things?
  5. What parts of your life will be impacted by you achieving your goal?
  6. What is the biggest obstacle you are currently facing?
  7. What does self-sabotage look like for you?
  8. What is your inner critic saying to you?
  9. What fears are present?
  10. What are you passionate about?

 

Options

  1. What is your first step?
  2. If you had 50% more confidence, what would you be doing that would be different?
  3. If success was guaranteed, what would you do?
  4. If money was not an obstacle, what would you do?
  5. What action step is the best use of your time at this moment?
  6. If someone else came to you with your obstacle, what would you tell them?
  7. What strengths can you use to move forward?
  8. If you could do only one thing this week, what would it be?
  9. What would you do if you answered to no one?
  10. What is the most efficient use of your time in this moment?

 

Way Forward

  1. On a scale of 1 to 10, how motivated are you to achieving your goal?
  2. What will it take to get that motivation closer to a 10?
  3. Whatever your first step is, can you think of anything that might stop you from doing it?
  4. How committed are you to achieving this goal?
  5. How do you want to be held accountable for this goal?
  6. How will you celebrate when you’ve achieved your goal?
  7. What are you going to do in the next 24 hours?
  8. What will you do when you’ve achieved your goal?
  9. Who do you need to include in your journey to that goal?
  10. What else do you need to consider before starting?

 

5 Grow Coaching Model Exercises and Worksheets (+ PDF)

grow coaching model exercisesThe GROW model is a great way to weave coaching and positive psychology together.

We know from Self-Determination Theory that autonomous motivation is important in effective goal setting (Deci & Ryan, 2008).

Utilizing the Goals portion of the GROW framework is therefore vital to connecting with a client’s motivation.

Opportunities to introduce concepts in positive psychology that a client may be unaware of are plentiful in coaching relationships. Through the introduction of VIA character strengths, clients can begin to build creative ways to utilize them in their lives and workplaces. Reportedly, more engaged employees will produce better results (Robison, 2019).

 

Goals

In the Goals section of the framework, helping a client realize their strengths and helping them align that in balance with goals is a helpful exercise. Goals are anchors for hope, and the more human beings are aligned with their core values in movements toward those goals, the better-engaged people will be in participating in actions that will make those goals realized.

Here is a helpful Goal Setting pdf to use with clients.

 

Reality

When working in the Reality portion of the GROW framework, it is important to remember how perspective works. If a client has never experienced the beauty of reframing and growth mindset conversations, it would be a perfect time to serve them with this information.

Broaden and build theory (Frederickson, 2001) gives clients the ability to open themselves to possibilities through increased positive emotions. By asking a client about what is working well, their brains are more open.

By offering unconditional positive regard as a coach, clients are given an opportunity to explore their personal perspective. This area of GROW allows for an invitation for self-assessment. The information that is required to solve problems adequately can be illuminated during this part of the framework.

Here is a helpful Reality pdf to use with clients.

 

Options

The Options portion of the GROW framework can be magical. It allows clients to explore possibilities and to choose which of those possibilities will work the best to move them forward. When the client develops these options, they are more motivated and emotionally connected to them.

Here is a helpful Options pdf to use with clients.

 

Way Forward

Each coaching session will reveal a Way Forward for the client. A coach’s job is to collaborate with their client to assist them in connecting with what they want to do and what they will do for their next step. This portion of the framework helps to develop a commitment to goal achievement.

Clarifying action steps and preparing a specific plan for forward movement is developed here. A client identifying future obstacles allows for planning ahead and for keeping the momentum going when these obstacles inevitably pop up. Having an accountability buddy in the process will help a client hold themselves to what they said they were going to do.

Here is a helpful Way Forward pdf to use with clients.

 

The GROW model can be utilized in group coaching, as well. Here is a helpful GROW with your team pdf to use in a group setting. Having a framework when many voices need to be heard is recommended.

 

Grow Model Coaching Powerpoint Templates

Attached are templates to highlight the “how” of the GROW model. It is a helpful presentation to offer leaders in any area responsible for others. These GROW Templates explain the GROW model.

 

A Take-Home Message

The GROW model is a simple yet highly effective coaching framework that can be used in any coaching setting. When a coach creates a reliable scaffolding for a session, the client can easily move through whatever they need to explore to decide what action steps, if any, they’d like to take moving forward. It can be adapted to fit into any setting where decisions need to be made, or where obstacles need to be overcome.

The benefit of having structure when coaching is that the client-chosen topic can move forward on their terms. It helps set an agenda, and the open-ended coaching questioning allows clients to be open to the possibilities that might be revealed. Holding space for other people is hard work. The GROW model makes the process a little more structured.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free.

If you wish for more, our Positive Psychology Toolkit© contains over 300 science-based positive psychology exercises, interventions, questionnaires, and assessments for practitioners to use in their therapy, coaching, or workplace.

  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macro theory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182–185.
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.
  • Lasley et al. (2015). Coaching for Transformation. United States: Discover Press
  • Robison, J. & Gandhi, R. (2019, March 13). Make Engagement Central to Culture and Reap The Rewards. Retrieved from Gallup
  • Whitmore, Sir John. (1988). Coaching for Performance. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing

About the Author

Kelly Miller is a graduate of the Flourishing Center’s CAPP program and published author of Jane's Worry Elephant. She is currently the owner of A Brighter Purpose, LLC, a provider in positive psychology coaching services. When she isn’t gleefully helping humans move toward flourishing, she enjoys National Park hikes and spending quality time with her adventurous family.

Comments

  1. Nisha Printer

    Thank you for sharing this article. The GROW method makes so much more sense and I am waiting to try this out.
    I also like the different ways the questions are answered, it gives me a way to think differently.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Nisha,
      That’s great you found the article helpful, Nisha. I hope you have success putting the principles into practice — we’d love to hear how it goes.
      – Nicol | Community Manager

      Reply
  2. Kara

    Thank you for this generous sharing of information and a very practical approach in positive psychology, motivational interviewing, and behavioral change. My favorite part is the exploration of possibilities – how beautiful is that! It allows the client to start imagining their new story and not have to replay their past or existing story over and over again.
    Kara Dowdall, BS, MS
    Certified Functional Medicine Practitioner
    http://www.intellecthealth.com

    Reply
  3. Sushama Kirtikar

    PositivePsychology.com continues to be a resource of incredible generosity. You have created a platform of collaboration providing research based articles that enhance skills and knowledge for professionals and more importantly are reader friendly to boot. Thank you and hats off to you!

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Sushama,
      That’s incredibly kind of you to say. We’re proud to be helping readers and practitioners in the positive psychology space, and comments like yours remind us why we keep on writing every day.
      Thank you 🙂
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  4. Jo Tasker

    Thank you so much for this really clear information and associated supported documents. I have been working alongside a counselling client for a number of weeks who is stuck and feel the GROW approach will work really well to enable her to explore a realistic way forward.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Jo,
      That’s fantastic that you see this model working for your client. We wish you the best of luck putting it into practice and hope it goes well.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  5. Tanya Franks

    Hi Steph,
    This is one of my favourite coaching models. I like the additional TH (tactics, habits) extending the GROW model into GROWTH. So far I have only used GROW, but from now on for a more rounded model, I will use GROWTH.
    Thank you for this article.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Tanya,
      You’re welcome. I’m glad this article served as a useful update for you. Yes, models and frameworks in positive psychology often get extra letters added (usually without my noticing!) Another one I can think of was when SMART goal-setting became SMARTER goal-setting.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply

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