What is Self-Actualization? A Psychologist’s Definition [+Examples]

What is Self-Actualization: a Definition

The concept of self-actualization is best known to psychology in the context of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The decades-old idea is certainly an area of interest in modern psychology research, but many still only know it as the top of Maslow’s motivational pyramid.

This article will discuss self-actualization as it was first outlined, where self-actualization research stands today, and why self-actualization is relevant to both the positive psychology movement and the average person.


What is Self-Actualization? A Definition

Self-actualization is a term first coined by Kurt Goldstein that most often refers to the top level of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In his seminal paper about human motivation where he first introduced his hierarchy of needs, Maslow defined self-actualization by claiming that “[w]hat a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization” (Maslow, 1943).

Self-actualization has also been described as:

“the psychological process aimed at maximizing the use of a person’s abilities and resources. This process may vary from one person to another” (Couture et al., 2007).

In other words, for our purposes, self-actualization can be thought of as the full realization of one’s creative, intellectual, or social potential.

Since self-actualization is based on leveraging one’s abilities to reach their potential, it is a very individual process and can greatly differ from person to person. As we will see, this recognition of individual motivations is a key part of Maslow’s work, and what he felt differentiated it from the contemporary motivational psychology of his early career.

Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow was a psychologist most affiliated with humanistic psychology. His interests in human motivation and self-actualization stemmed from his experiences both early on as a timid child, and later on as a father witnessing the horrors of World War Two (Frick, 2000; Hoffman, 2008). His hierarchy of needs is still taught as a critical part of motivational psychology, despite first being outlined over 70 years ago. In fact, some of Maslow’s work is even thought to cover similar ground as the positive psychology movement (Goud, 2008).


The Theory of Self-Actualization and the Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s idea of self-actualization must first be contextualized within his hierarchy of needs. Maslow felt that human motivation needed to be studied beyond the contemporary scope of behaviorism because the study of “[m]otivation should be human-centered rather than animal-centered” (Maslow, 1943).

The Theory of Self-Actualization and the Hierarchy of Needs

With this goal in mind, he first outlined his hierarchy of needs in his seminal 1943 paper on human motivation.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is made up of “physiological [needs], safety [needs], love [needs], esteem [needs], and self-actualization” in a pyramid from bottom to top. Each level of needs must be taken care of before the next one can be addressed—so ensuring one’s physiological needs (like food and water) is a prerequisite to ensuring their safety needs (like shelter), ensuring one’s safety needs is a prerequisite to ensuring one’s love needs, and so on.

Because self-actualization is the highest level, it is only when one’s physiological, safety, love, and esteem needs are taken care of that one can hope to achieve self-actualization.


Examples of Self-Actualization

This raises the question of what self-actualization actually looks like. When first describing self-actualization, Maslow described the top of his hierarchy of needs by remarking that:

“[a] musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy” (Maslow, 1943).

Aside from naming general types of people, Maslow (1970) also once named a few people who he considered to have reached a level of self-actualization in their lifetimes. These included:

  • Abraham Lincoln;
  • Thomas Jefferson;
  • Albert Einstein;
  • Eleanor Roosevelt;
  • Jane Addams;
  • William James;
  • Albert Schweitzer;
  • Aldous Huxley;
  • Baruch Spinoza.


In that same book, Maslow also listed a few other potential cases of self-actualization. These included Eugene Debs, Frederick Douglas, Ida Tarbell, Harriet Tubman, George Washington, George Washington Carver, and Walt Whitman.

While all of the above names were public figures in one way or another, it is interesting to note that Maslow listed a wide variety of people, from abolitionists and authors to philosophers, politicians, and poets.


A recent study conducted by Krems et al. (2017) was interested in how non-psychologists viewed self-actualization. The authors found that “lay perceptions of realizing one’s full potential are linked to the fundamental motive of achieving status and esteem.”

In other words, participants most associated realizing their potential (and the drive to do so) with reaching some level of internally-recognized success (esteem, which is notably on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs itself) and some level of externally-recognized success (status).

This conflicts with Maslow’s (1943) initial separation of status/esteem and self-actualization. The authors, however, point out that “a functional reading” of Maslow’s work, such as the one discussed by Kenrick et al. (2010), indicates that “many of the behaviors involved in pursuing one’s full potential are linked to status, both directly and indirectly” (Krems et al., 2017). This relation between status-seeking and self-actualization also fits in with the fact that the most obvious examples of self-actualization are of public figures who have achieved high levels of status.


Self-Actualization and Positive Psychology

The concept of self-actualization is related to the concerns of positive psychology through its connection with the idea of well-being.

According to Bernard et al. (2010), the work of another humanistic psychologist, Albert Ellis, indicated that “self-actualization involves the pursuit of excellence and enjoyment; whichever people choose to desire and emphasize”.

This focus on excellence and enjoyment as a symptom of the realization of potential shows the relation between self-actualization and well-being. Recently, multiple studies have examined self-actualization as a component of well-being (Compton, 2001; Kim et al., 2003). As the examination of well-being is the main feature of positive psychology, this shows the importance of recognizing how self-actualization and well-being relate to each other.

Another interesting study examined the effects of a positive psychology course on well-being and found that college students who took a course on positive psychology reported increased levels of happiness, hope, mindfulness, and self-actualization, further highlighting the relationship between positive psychology and self-actualization (Maybury, 2013).

Aside from well-being, one of the main drives behind outlining positive psychology was the reinstatement of a “fundamental [misson] of psychology” that Martin Seligman felt had been too long ignored by contemporary psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, M., 2000). This mission that Maslow highlighted was the goal of “nurturing genius.” Since self-actualization and striving to reach one’s potential are certainly related to nurturing genius, this shows that self-actualization is an aspect of positive psychology.


A Take-Home Message

While Abraham Maslow’s groundbreaking theory of motivation and hierarchy of needs are still taught today, it is important to contextualize his idea of self-actualization within the positive psychology movement. Self-actualization is actually related to positive psychology in two distinct ways: as a component of well-being and as a way to measure the nurturing of genius.

Since these were both aspects of psychology that Martin Seligman had felt were long ignored in psychology, and were both driving factors behind the outlining of positive psychology, the study of self-actualization can be a valuable tool within the field of positive psychology.

So what relevance does self-actualization hold for the average person? At the end of the day, realizing one’s potential is a personal endeavor that depends on where one’s creative, intellectual, or social potential lies.

In other words, self-actualization is not about making the most money or becoming the most famous person in the world. Instead, self-actualization is about reaching one’s personal potential, whether that means becoming a painter, a politician, a philosopher, a teacher, or anything else.

Self-actualization is truly about achieving your dreams!

As always, we’d love to hear from you in the comments? What does self-actualization mean to you? When do you feel like you are self-actualizing, and what does it feel like? Do you think it is an important part of well-being?

Thanks for reading!

  • Bernard, M.E., Froh, J.J., DiGiuseppe, R., Joyce, M.R., Dryden, W. (2010). Albert Ellis: Unsung hero of positive psychology. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 302-310. doi:10.1080/17439760.2010.498622
  • Compton, W.C. (2001). Toward a tripartite factor structure of mental health: Subjective well-being, personal growth, and religiosity. Journal of Psychology, 135(5), 486-500.
  • Couture, M., Desrosiers, J., Leclerc, G. (2007). Self-actualization and poststroke rehabilitation. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 30(2), 111-117. doi:10.1097/MRR.0b013e32813a2ea5
  • Frick, W.B. (2000). Remembering Maslow: Reflections on a 1968 interview. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 40(2), 128-147. doi:10.1177/0022167800402003
  • Goud, N. (2008). Abraham Maslow: A personal statement. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 48(4), 448-451. doi:10.1177/0022167808320535
  • Hoffman, E. (2008). Abraham Maslow: A biographer’s reflections. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 48(4), 439-443. doi:10.1177/0022167808320534
  • Kenrick, D.T., Neuberg, S.L., Griskevicius, V., Becker, D.V., Schaller, M. (2010). Goal-Driven Cognition and Functional Behavior: The Fundamental-Motives Framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 63-67. doi: 10.1177/0963721409359281
  • Kim, Y., Kasser, T., Lee, H. (2003). Self-concept, aspirations, and well-being in South Korea and the United States. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(3), 277-290.
  • Krems, J.A., Kenrick, D.T., Neel, R. (2017). Individual Perceptions of Self-Actualization: What Functional Motives Are Linked to Fulfilling One’s Full Potential? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(9), 1337-1352. doi:10.1177/0146167217713191
  • Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row. Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 50(1), 370-396. doi:10.1037/h0054346
  • Maybury, K.K. (2013). The Influence of a Positive Psychology Course on Student Well-Being. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 62-65. doi:10.1177/0098628312465868
  • Seligman, M.E.P., Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology – An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.89

About the Author

Joaquín Selva, Bc.S., Psychologist is a behavioral neuroscience researcher and scientific editor. Joaquín was both a teaching assistant and a research assistant and conducted research that led to the publication of three peer-reviewed papers. Since then, his work has included writing for PositivePsychology.com and working as an English editor for academic papers written by non-native English speakers.


  1. Brad Arnold

    the 2000+ year old life philosophy Stoicism actually provides the psychological tools to self-actualize without meeting the lower needs in the Maslow hierarchy. They teach the “Stoic Fork,” where you only focus or care about what you can control, which turns out to be only internals, not externals. The whole point is that they believed self-actualizing (they didn’t have that word, but called the state fitness, or excellence) only required living a life of virtue (i.e. pursuit of fitness or excellence). This life philosophy bestows amazing mental resilience, and I’ve already notice a marked positive change in both my happiness and people’s evaluation of my performance.

  2. Drew Fisher

    Thank you for this illuminating and thought-provoking article. I have also enjoyed the discussion stream it generated in the comments.
    As with Leslie’s hierarchy, I think one’s personal understanding and use of the term “needs” comes strongly into play when one is trying to get a grip on what self-actualization means. If your beliefs and values are centered within a more physical, material just world view, then you are probably going to be looking for things to define and satisfy your “needs;” as your beliefs and values become less grounded in a material world concept, you will probably find an ability and penchant for “needing” less and then spending less time dealing with the “lower” levels of Leslie’s hierarchy and more time working on the achievement and realization of the higher levels–achieving inspirations and instances of genius and ” peak” life experiences. The keys, in my opinion, are loosening one’s attachment to expectations and outcomes while cultivating a more detached perspective of worldly minutia. Good luck!

    • Drew Fisher

      The spellchecker decided “Leslie” was a more appropriate substitute for “Maslow”. Those of you following this thread know better.

  3. J Robinson

    To have a mind so flexible as to be capable of self-actualization would also mean having a mind flexible enough to be maybe even more susceptible to depression just as creativity seems to go hand in hand with bipolar disorder.

    • Mohib

      superb saying, mind flexibility is the primary indicator causing anxiety and depression

      • Patrick Clarke

        The notion that self-actualization potentially goes hand in hand with with anxiety and depression is misguided. Self-actualization is simply about personal growth. It involves the disposition to reflect and determine how to be and do the best you can. It certainly involves the courage to try and the aspiration to be more. It is an ideology of health. If a person is predisposed to anxiety or depression these are issues to be addressed in the effort to self-actualize. To reject such a positive approach to life is to say we should not think about how to be the best we can, to find self-acceptance, compassion, and spiritual calm. We control our thoughts . To be afraid of the pitfalls or the struggle is to hide from life.

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