The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)

Five Facet Mindfulness QuestionnaireMindfulness is the connecting bridge between our mind and the present moment. It is the art of staying aware of what is happening right now, what we are thinking about this very moment, and how we are feeling at present.

Jon Kabat Zinn, the proponent and one of the most eminent figures in the field of applied mindfulness, defined it as a process of being involved and accepting the internal and external moment-to-moment experience in a decentered manner (Kabat-Zinn, 1994).

Mindfulness is secular in every aspect, which is why different branches of mental health interventions have embraced mindful practices for enhancing well-being (Ludwig & Kabat-Zinn, 2008). As practical measures of mindfulness, there are two most popular techniques that many psychologists and health professionals use today:

  1. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Techniques (MBSR) for helping people get rid of burnout and establish a deeper connection to their mind and body.
  2. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) that helps people catch the negative automatic thoughts that cause stress and allows them to successfully replace them with positive and self-enhancing thinking (Segal, Teasdale, Williams, & Gemar, 2002).

All formal and informal mindfulness-based practices aim to:

  • Alleviate stress.
  • Promote positive thinking.
  • Develop a deep and meaningful insight.
  • Prevent breakdown from anxiety and distress.
  • Help people recover from chronic physical illnesses.
  • Develop robust coping mechanisms and build emotional resilience.

Studies have found that mindfulness is effective and offers a permanent solution to adverse mental health conditions such as depression, PTSD, postpartum diseases, and substance abuse.

Besides recovery, it also reduces the chances of relapse, which is another reason behind the immense popularity of mindfulness-based practices (Chiesa & Serretti, 2009; Hofmann, Sawyer, Witt, & Oh, 2010; Piet & Hougaard, 2011; Strauss, Cavanagh, Oliver, & Pettman, 2014).

In this article, we will have a look at the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, which is an objective test on mindfulness and its impact on the vital aspects of life. It is a brief but in-depth study on the analysis with some great online resources and evidence-supported explanations of how the test works in real life.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Mindfulness Exercises for free. These science-based, comprehensive exercises will not only help you cultivate a sense of inner peace throughout your daily life but will also give you the tools to enhance the mindfulness of your clients, students, or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

What is the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire?

The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a self-help and self-scorable measurement on the five aspects (or facets) of mindfulness namely:

  1. observation
  2. description
  3. aware actions
  4. non-judgmental inner experience, and
  5. non-reactivity.

The test consists of 39 items that measure the five facets, and the scores provide an estimate of where we stand in terms of mindfulness and self-awareness.

Besides assessing how we are, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire also provides an accurate judgment of the impact of any previous mindful practices that we have practiced before. The development of this questionnaire was crucially important as it was one of the earliest measures that explored the efficacy of mindfulness in overcoming real-life problems (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004).

The original long-form version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire contains 39 statements that relate to our thoughts, experiences, and actions in daily life. Ruth Baer, a professor and mindfulness researcher, based at the Kentucky University, developed this scale along with her team, to measure the factors that help us stay mindful in daily life.

The test originates from an exploratory analysis of similar tests such as the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scales (Brown & Ryan, 2003), Cognitive Affective Mindfulness Scale (Hayes & Feldman, 2004), Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (Baer et al., 2004), and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmüller, Kleinknetch, & Schmidt, 2006).

Each of the five facets of the FFMQ provides a closer look at our inner faculties. The overall scores of all five subscales of the FFMQ give a reliable measure of self-awareness and suggest how effective mindfulness practices have proved to us.

 

What Versions Are There? Short and Long Form?

The Five Facet Mindfulness Scale that Baer developed was incorporated in different languages and forms. The original assessment consisted of 39 self-scorable statements, each investigating one of the five main aspects (observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonreactivity, and non-judgment).

Some shorter versions of the tests in other languages also became popular. They used a system known as the Rasch analysis to measure the outcome of the results and predict their implications. The smaller subscales of the test consisted around 18-24 items that were selected after eliminating statements that researchers felt were inappropriate for the particular population (Baer, Carmody, & Hunsinger, 2012).

Subscales of this test include:

  • A Dutch version with 24 items (FFMQ – Short Form).
  • A German version consisting of 20 statements (FFMQ – Short).
  • A Chinese version with 20 statements.

The short and long forms of the FFMQ test are useful for comparing different mindful interventions and predicting which technique is ideal for a particular mental health condition. The scales are recommended for comparing pre and post interventions and estimating the level of mindfulness of subjects at present (Medvedev, Titkova, Siegert, Hwang, & Krägeloh, 2018; Tran, Glück, & Nader, 2013).

The Five Facet Mindfulness Scale consists of positive and negative worded statements that hold for practitioners and beginners. Baer and other professionals working on the test admit that both the short and long versions of the test are helpful for clinical and non-clinical population across cultures.

The shorter subscales have an advantage of quicker administration and can be applied to a large sample population. However, the extended version provides a detailed explanation of the scores and is a more reliable predictor of well-being.

 

What Does the FFMQ Measure?

As mentioned earlier, the FFMQ is a mindfulness-based intervention that tests whether mindfulness is related to a decrease in clinical symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.

The scale also measures the effectiveness of other mindfulness strategies such as MBCT and MBSR and establish their role in individual well-being (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006).

Recent studies are also investigating the psychometric characteristics of the short and long versions (FFMQ- SF, and FFMQ-LF) to support the association between the test and other MBIs (Mindfulness-Based Interventions; Baer et al., 2006; Neff, 2003).

The 39 items of the original questionnaire measure five vital elements of mindfulness. Responses in the scale are made on a 5-point Likert Scale, and the summation of the direct and reverse-scored items give the total score.

The five facets, or five key aspects of mindfulness that the test measures acts as the mediator of therapeutic change and mindful interventions (Carmody & Baer, 2008).

Below is a brief description of the five factors that this test measures:

 

1. Observation

Observation entails in the ways we use our sensory awareness. It involves how we see, feel, and perceive the internal and external world around us and select the stimuli that require our attention and focus.

 

2. Description

The statements evaluating descriptive qualities study the way we label our experiences and express them in words to ourselves and others.

 

3. Mindful actions

Mindfulness is closely related to self-awareness and calculated actions. This facet of the test studies the movements we choose after attending to the information present at the moment. It delves deep into whether we can act out of quick judgment and get out of the autopilot mode before responding to a situation.

 

4. Non-judgmental inner experience

Non-judgmental experience is tied in with not letting the inner critic take a toll on our happiness and positive state of mind. It calls for self-acceptance and unconditional empathy for oneself and others.

 

5. Non-reactivity

This aspect refers to active detachment from negative thoughts and emotions so that we can accept their existence and choose not to react to them. Non-reactivity makes way for emotional resilience and restores mental balance (McManus, Surawy, Muse, Vazquez-Montes, & Williams, 2012).

 

Scoring and Interpretation

The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is self-scorable and easily accessible.

There are two patterns of scoring involved in the Five Facet Mindfulness Test:

  • Direct Scoring – where the items are scored according to the Likert value (for example 1 would add a score of 1 and 4 adds a value of 4).
  • Reverse Scoring – where we score the items backward (for example, 1 adds a score of 5, 5 adds a score of 1, 4 would mean a score of 2, and likewise).

The items marked R are reverse scored. Summation of all the direct and reverse items adds up to the total value of the scale. They are negatively worded statements (for example – I don’t care what I am doing because I am distracted in day-dreaming, overthinking, or otherwise).

Here is a breakdown of all the statements of the long-form FFMQ questionnaire and what aspect they measure:

Facet Statements that measure it Scoring Pattern
1. Observation 1, 6, 11, 15, 20, 26, 31, 36 All directly scored
2. Description 2, 7, 12, 16, 22, 27, 32, 37 12, 16, and 22 – Reverse Items
3. Aware actions 5, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 34, 38 All reverse-scored items
4. Non-judgmental inner critic 3, 10, 14, 17, 25, 30, 35, 39 All reverse-scored items
5. Non-reactivity 4, 9, 19, 21, 24, 29, 33 All directly scored items

 

Gu and colleagues (2016) created a shorter version of the test, the FFMQ-SF that had 15 items from the original Five Facet Questionnaire. Although there were arguments about the validity of the abridged form, researchers believed that the 15 statements included in it serve the test’s purpose as accurately as the original version.

The items and the scoring of the shorter adaptation are shown below:

Facet Statements that measure it Scoring Pattern
Observation 1, 6, 11 Direct
Description 2, 7, 12 7 – Reversed Scoring
Aware actions 3, 8, 13 Reverse
Non-judgmental experience 4, 9, 14 Reverse
Non-reactivity 5, 10, 15 Direct

 

A Look at the Validity

Evaluation of the psychological implications of the scale revealed that FFMQ has strong validity. Repeated administration of the test pointed at high test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the assessment; both for the long-form and shorter versions of it.

Studies on a large-scale population including students, professionals, and clinically depressed individuals proved that FFMQ is a predictor for positive thinking, an overall uplifted mood, and subjective feelings of well-being (Baer et al., 2006; Bohlmeijer, Ten Klooster, Fledderus, Veehof, & Baer, 2011).

Furthermore, research on regular meditators and non-meditators who took the test indicated that regular practitioners had higher scores than non-meditators, proving the direct positive correlation between meditation and mindfulness (Bohlmeijer et al., 2011).

Construct validity, which is ideally one of the biggest concerns of psychometrists for proving the usefulness of a scale, is relatively high and stable for this test across cultures and different age groups (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Construct validation of the analysis offered substantial value to its definition and application. It standardized the results and asserted their efficacy for predicting mindful self-awareness (Levinson, Stoll, Kindy, Merry, & Davidson, 2014).

Dr. Ruth Baer conducted a factor analysis of the five facets of FFMQ in 2006. Her studies revealed that the hierarchical structure of the factors justify the traits that each element claims to measure (Baer et al., 2006; Baer et al., 2008).

Overall, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is an established and valid psychometric self-assessment for mindfulness. The five subscales of the test provide a meaningful estimate of how aware the respondent is at the moment. Besides, they also assess the impact of the mindful interventions he has undertaken earlier (Campbell & Fiske, 1959).

 

Where Can I Find it Online? (+ PDF)

Mindfulness-Based self-help questionnaires such as the FFMQ are multifaceted and all-encompassing. They are designed in a way that can help individuals irrespective of whether they are undergoing a stressful phase or not. Below is a snippet of what the test looks like. You can also find a detailed description of this test from the toolkit or take it online.

Based on your general opinion about yourself, rate the following statements as is right for you:

Statements 1 (never) 2 (rarely true) 3 (sometimes true) 4 (often true) 5 (always true)
1. While walking, I am aware of the sensations in my body.
2. I can describe my feelings well.
3. I criticize myself for having irrational emotions and thoughts.
4. I can perceive emotions without reacting to them.
5. I am easily distracted.
6. I am aware of the bodily sensations when I take a bath.
7. I can easily talk about my thoughts and opinions.
8. I don’t pay attention to my work as I am busy daydreaming most of the time.
9. I can watch my feelings without getting attached to them.
10. I correct myself when I think the way I shouldn’t.
11. I can feel how eating and drinking affect my body and mind.
12. I find it hard to express what I feel.
13. I am easily distracted.
14. I am aware that some of my thoughts are not normal, and I know that I shouldn’t feel that way.
15. I can feel pure sensations like the wind or the sunlight touching my skin.
16. Sometimes I cannot find words to express what I feel.
17. I judge my thoughts as good or bad.
18. I find it difficult to sustain focus.
19. I step back when I catch myself thinking something negative or distressing.
20. I can pay attention to the clock ticking, birds chirping, and cars passing.
21. I think before reacting under stressful situations.
22. I find it difficult to describe my bodily sensations in words.
23. I sometimes feel that I am not in complete awareness of myself.
24. I can calm down soon after experiencing distressing thoughts and impulses.

 

A Take-Home Message

Mindfulness interventions or tests do not offer immediate relief, and neither do they guarantee a quick solution to distress. What they provide us is the reassurance that we are doing great and can keep any unwanted thoughts from de-persuading us.

The five aspects of awareness that the FFMQ investigates help in:

  • Clarifying goals.
  • Accepting negative thoughts but not reacting to them.
  • Cultivating openness and awareness of mind and body.
  • Dealing with stress and adversities.
  • Expressing and regulating emotions.
  • Problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Nurturing positive relationships.

The key to mindful living lies in observing everything and attending only to the positivity around. To quote Carl Gustav Jung:

It all depends on how we look at things, and not how they are in themselves.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Mindfulness Exercises for free.

If you wish to learn more, Mindfulness X© is our 8-module mindfulness training package for practitioners which contains all the materials you’ll need to not only enhance your mindfulness skills but also learn how to deliver a science-based mindfulness training to your clients, students, or employees.

 

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  • Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206.
  • Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Assessment, 13, 27-45.
  • Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., … & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329-342.
  • Bohlmeijer, E., Ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18(3), 308-320.
  • Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848.
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  • Piet, J., & Hougaard, E. (2011). The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1032-1040.
  • Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., Williams, J. M., & Gemar, M. C. (2002). The mindfulness‐based cognitive therapy adherence scale: Inter‐rater reliability, adherence to protocol and treatment distinctiveness. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 9(2), 131-138.
  • Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K., Oliver, A., & Pettman, D. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLOS ONE, 9(4).
  • Tran, U. S., Glück, T. M., & Nader, I. W. (2013). Investigating the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ): Construction of a short form and evidence of a two‐factor higher order structure of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 951-965.
  • Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543-1555.

About the Author

Madhuleena Roy Chowdhury holds a postgrad in clinical psychology and is a certified psychiatric counsellor. She specialized in optimizing mental health and is an experienced teacher and school counselor. She loves to help others through her work as a researcher, writer, and blogger and reach as many as possible.

Comments

  1. mary

    on which population FFMQ can be administered ?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Mary,

      The creators of the scale indicate that the scale is suitable for use across a diversity of populations (e.g., people from different cultures and across both clinical and non-clinical samples). So you shouldn’t have any trouble there. The only thing to keep in mind is whether you will have enough time to administer the full scale, and if not, you may want to use the short version.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  2. Anna McGuckin

    Hi! How do I reference this article you wrote for an essay for uni?

    thanks x

    Reply
  3. Aashita Khanna

    Can you also help me with the validity and reliability of the 15 item version?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Aashita,

      Findings in Gu et al. (2016) have found that the 15-item measure exhibits convergent validity comparable to the 39-item measure (see pp. 797). The scale’s also shown suitable factor structure (but the authors believe that a four-factor model may be just as suitable as a five-factor model).

      You’re safe to assume the test-retest reliability and the validity of the measure because the items are identical to the full 39-item measure, and I believe these were tested in the original paper.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  4. Aashita Khanna

    Respected ma’am,
    Can you please help me with the scoring and interpretation or cutoff score for the FFMQ-15 item version? would be of great help

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Aashita,

      It can be tricky to get this information about scoring interpretation sometimes. It tends to be more common for scales that are applied in clinical settings (e.g., the Beck Depression Inventory), but these cut-offs (e.g., for high, medium, and low levels of a variable) do not always exist outside of clinical settings. I’d say your best bet would be to reach out to the first author of the scale, Ruth Baer, and see if they have any information on this.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  5. Huda Donald

    Hi there, thank you for this article I found it very useful. I was wondering if the FFMQ is a useful scale to measure nature exposure and the effect of that on a mindfulness practice? If not would you please suggest another measuring scale suitable for this kind of investigation?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Huda,

      The FFMQ might be suitable for measuring mindfulness practice if your study is focusing on differences between people, rather than changes in mindfulness states within people (e.g., throughout one’s day). For a scale on nature exposure, maybe reach out to Pensini et al. (2016) to get access to the scale they designed.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  6. Surbhi Chandna

    Hey!!!
    From where I can find proper validity and reliability of The FFMQ long version
    Please help I want it for my research.

    Link please

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Surbhi,

      You’ll find a description of the development and validation procedures in the original paper by Baer and colleagues (2006) here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Kiera

        Hi! In this article, it mentions construct validity across cultures and genders and this is cited as Crocker and Algina (2008), however, I cannot seem to find such an article? The only article from these authors I can find is from 1986! The Baur article also does not discuss construct validity and only incremental validity. Could you please help me with where you obtained this info from?
        Thanks,
        Kiera

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Kiera,

          Sorry about this missing reference. Re: the Crocker and Algina article, this was a typo — it should have been 1986:

          Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

          Re: the Baer article, perhaps it was the wrong article you were viewing. It should have been the following:

          Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., … & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329-342.

          Apologies again for the confusion. The reference list on this post was incomplete, but it has now been corrected.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  7. Kacie Lang

    Hi! I am loving this measure. How are scores interpreted? Are there any normative values or is this better utilized in pre/post setting for each person?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Kacie,

      It can be tricky to get this information about scoring interpretation sometimes. It tends to be more common for scales that are applied in clinical settings (e.g., the Beck Depression Inventory), but these cut-offs (e.g., for high, medium, and low levels of a variable) do not always exist outside of clinical settings. I’d say your best bet would be to reach out to the first author of the FFMQ validation paper, Dr. Ruth Baer, and see if she has any information on this.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  8. Sam

    Hi,

    Just to clarify, is the snippet provided the short FFMQ or is it just a summary of the first 24 questions.

    Thanks,
    Sam

    Reply
    • Annelé Venter

      Hi Sam,

      The full FFMQ contains 39 questions, so yes the snippet does not contain all the questions.

      Thanks for the question,
      Annelé

      Reply
  9. Bridget McNamara

    Hi there what is the citation for the FFMQ-SF please? Thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Bridget,

      Here’s the citation for the short-form FFMQ: Bohlmeijer, E., Ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18(3), 308-320.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  10. Tehreem

    Hi! I want to use the questionnaire in a research in Pakistan but I need to translate the questionnaire. Can you please tell me if where can I get the permission to translate the questionnaire.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Tehreem,

      The scale is freely available to use, so you shouldn’t need written permission from the creators. However, if this is a requirement of your course, you can reach out to the scale’s creator, Ruth Baer, here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  11. Wendy

    I have been searching for scoring interpretation, as in high scores and low scores of each domain, and what scores depict if the participant has scored high or low in FFMQ. like the cut off score for high score in FFMQ and cut off score for low score in FFMQ.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Wendy,

      It can be tricky to get this information about scoring interpretation sometimes, but I’d say your best bet would be to reach out the first author of the FFMQ validation paper, Dr. Ruth Baer, and see if she has any information on this.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  12. Ashoke Mukherjee

    is there any relation between reaction time (visual, auditory and tactile) with mindfulness

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Ashoke,

      There sure is! Check out the following article by van den Hurk et al. (2010) for evidence positively linking mindfulness meditation to reaction time and other indicators of efficient attentional processing.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  13. Satyam

    hello,
    very nicely you explained thank you.
    i am just wondering that how to interpret after all the scoring got done, can you pls explain . what the significance if i scored 27 IN observation and total score is 156.
    thank you

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Satyam,

      Glad you enjoyed the article. Based on my count, the total score you can get on the Observation sub-scale is 40 (8*5). So, if you scored 27, it suggests that you perceive the world around you mindfully at a level that is slightly above the midpoint (20).

      If you are looking to compare your score to populations norms, I’d suggest reaching out to the creator, Baer and colleagues.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  14. Been Park

    Hello. 🙂
    Thank you for giving me good information.
    I would like to know how to get the permission to use FFMQ15 for our business.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Been,
      The 15-item scale is available to use for free. You’ll find it in this paper.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
      • Tina

        Hello.

        I am slightly confused because I do not find any information on this link that the questionnaire is freely available. I would use it in a workshop with students in Slovenia, but for the use and publication of data I also need permission to use the questionnaire.

        Can you please help me.

        Reply
        • Nicole Celestine

          Hi Tina,

          Scales published in journal articles are available to use for free and however you like. But if you require permission from the authors, click ‘Author Affiliations’ on the page I linked above, and get in touch with the corresponding author, Clara Strauss.

          – Nicole | Community Manager

          Reply
  15. Jan Söhngen

    Hey 🙂
    Thanks for the good summary of FFMQ.
    Do you know anything about, or do you have any source, which explains which score means what?
    For example, if one has a score of 20 in something and the min and max is 0 and 30. What does the score of 20 mean? Is it good, because it is nearer on 30 then on 0? So is there any interpretation of the scores or a comparison between other groups?
    I hope you understand what I mean 🙂
    Thanks in advance,
    Jan

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Jan,
      Glad you enjoyed the article. This link will take you to the questionnaire. After you’ve reverse-scored the items listed with the letter ‘R’ after them, it’ll be the case that a higher total score for all the items indicates greater levels of mindfulness.
      Unfortunately, I can’t help you with regards to norms for different populations etc., nor cut-offs for, say, what constitutes high, medium, and low levels of mindfulness. I’d suggest reaching out to the creators of the scale to see whether they could provide this information.
      Hope this helps.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  16. Katherine

    You’ve missed coding for item number 28…

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Katherine,
      Oops! Good spotting. We’ll get this corrected very soon.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  17. DEMETRIUS BASTOS GOULART

    I would like to know one thing about de example used. When you say that 4 means 3 and 3 means 4 . It is right? or you would like to say that 4 means 2 and 2 means 4?
    I am trying to understand how to use but i didnt understand this example. Could you sell me an e-mail about this doubt?
    Thank you so much.

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Demetrius,
      Thanks for your question. Here’s a different way of explaining it which will hopefully help:
      Normal items (indicating high levels of mindfulness) are scored such that 1 = the lowest possible score, and 5 = the highest possible score on that given item.
      Reverse-scored items are statements that indicate low levels of mindfulness (e.g., the item ‘I don’t care what I am doing because I am distracted in day-dreaming, overthinking, or otherwise’ suggests the opposite of mindfulness). Therefore, for such items a response of, say, 5 actually equals 1. Likewise, 4 = 2, 3 = 3, 2 = 4, and 1 = 5.
      I hope this clears this up for you.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply
  18. Mujtaba Alam

    Do certain meditative traditions/practices have different effects across the 5 facets compared to other meditative tradtions/practices?

    Reply
    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Mujtaba,

      That’s an excellent question. I’d be interested to know myself! At face value, it would make sense that different meditative practices would tap into these different facets. For example, Mindfulness-based CBT interventions may be more likely to address non-judgmental internal experience? If you are interested, you could reach out to the the creator of the FFMQ, Ruth Baer, to see if she is aware of any research on this.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      Reply

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