How To Measure Resilience With These 8 Resilience Scales

how to measure resilience at work and in adultsWhen we experience disaster, trauma, or distressing psychological issues, we usually react with grief and a range of negative emotions.

This is, of course, a natural reaction to having our hopes dashed or our goals thwarted. However, such experiences are not only an inevitable part of life but virtually required for growth and development.

Persistence and resilience only come from having been given the chance to work through difficult problems.

Gever Tulley

These are the exact sort of experiences that build resilience. With resilience, you can work through the effects of stress and negative emotions and not only bounce back, but actually thrive.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2015) defines individual resilience as the ability to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity and stress. In other words, resilience can manifest as maintaining or returning to one’s original state of mental health or wellbeing or reaching a more mature and well-developed state of mental health or wellbeing through the use of effective coping strategies.

In order to grasp and effectively develop resilience, it is critical to understand the factors contributing to resilience.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Resilience Exercises for free. These engaging, science-based exercises will help you to effectively deal with difficult circumstances and give you the tools to improve the resilience of your clients, students or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

Components of Resilience

Resilience is defined differently depending on who you ask; psychological researchers may have one working definition (or many!), while those who work directly with people who are struggling often see it differently.

There is no single accepted set of components of resilience, but this set of characteristics and contributing factors can provide a useful guide:

  • Optimism – those who are optimistic tend to be more resilient as well since they are more likely to stay positive about the future even when faced with seemingly insurmountable obstacles.

  • Altruism – the most resilient among us often turn to help others when they need to relieve stress and boost their self-efficacy.

  • Moral Compass – people with a strong moral compass or steadfast set of beliefs about right and wrong generally have an easier time bouncing back.

  • Faith and Spirituality – while not a required factor for resilience, people often find their faith helpful in surviving challenges and coming through stronger and wiser on the other side.

  • Humor – people who have a healthy sense of humor and are able to laugh at their own misfortune are at an advantage when it comes to bouncing back, for obvious reasons!

  • Having a Role Model – this is also not a requirement for resilience, but those who have a role model in mind can draw strength from their desire to emulate this person.

  • Social Supports – unsurprisingly, social support is important when it comes to resilience; those with strong social support networks are better equipped to bounce back from loss or disappointment.

  • Facing Fear – this is not so much a characteristic as an action or tendency to act, but people who are willing to leave their comfort zone and confront their fears are more likely to overcome their challenges and grow as a person.

  • Meaning or Purpose in Life – it shouldn’t be surprising that those who feel they have a specific purpose in life or find a tremendous amount of meaning in their lives are more likely to recover from failure or disappointment; when you fervently believe you have a purpose, you are less likely to give up when faced with tragedy or loss.

  • Training – while a portion of individual resilience may be somewhat permanent and unchangeable, there is an opportunity for improvement; it is possible to improve your resilience through training (Staroverky, 2012).

These components are not present in each and every measure of resilience, but they form a good basis for understanding the nature and scope of resilience. It should be easy to spot most of them in at least one of the eight resilience scales described below.

Seeing the many individual cogs that make up the resilience machine, it is easy to imagine that there are many different ways to define and measure resilience. Indeed, there are virtually countless ways that resilience has been described, and many different methods of measuring it.

The resilience scales below are all useful tools in providing a measure of resilience, but you will see that they are built on different theories, based on different components, and/or created for different populations. Depending on the context in which it will be applied, one resilience scale may be more appropriate than others.


8 Resilience Scales

resilience scales measuresWith the importance of context and intended use in mind, we attempted to provide a diverse sample of resilience scales in the hopes that at least one of them may meet your needs.

While there are dozens of resilience measures out there for you to explore, we narrowed them down to the eight most popular and most empirically based resilience scales. These scales are listed and described below.


1) Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)

A study conducted by Windle, Bennett, & Noyes (2011) reviewed nineteen resilience measures. However, out of nineteen, only three of them received superior psychometric ratings, one of which is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

This scale was originally developed by Connor-Davidson (2003) as a self-report measure of resilience within the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) clinical community (CD-RISC, n.d.). It is a validated and widely recognized scale with 2, 10, and 25 items which measure resilience as a function of five interrelated components:

  1. Personal Competence
  2. Acceptance of Change and Secure Relationships
  3. Trust/Tolerance/Strengthening Effects of Stress
  4. Control
  5. Spiritual Influences

With an extensive number of studies using this tool, conducted within a varied range of populations, the CD-RISC is considered one of the higher scoring scales in the psychometric evaluation of resilience (Windle, Bennett, & Noyes, 2011).


2) Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA)

The RSA, another resilience scale rated highly by Windle, Bennett, & Noyes (2011), was authored by Friborg et al. (2003) as a self-report scale targeting adults. It is recommended for use in the health and clinical psychology population.

This scale has five scoring items that examine both the intrapersonal and interpersonal protective factors that promote adaptation to adversity.

The authors, Friborg et al. (2003), noted the key factors which contribute to highly resilient individuals, namely family support and cohesion, external support systems, and dispositional attitudes and behaviors, which the scale items are founded on. They are:

  • Personal Competence
  • Social Competence
  • Social Support
  • Family Coherence
  • Personal Structure

A later study performed by Friborg et al. (2005) used the RSA to measure the relationship between personality, intelligence, and resilience. They found many links between personality and resilience factors, such as the connection between higher personal competence and elevated emotional stability. There were, however, no significant findings related to cognitive ability (Friborg et al., 2005).

This is in line with Windle et al. (2011), who concluded that the RSA is highly useful for assessing the protective factors which inhibit or provide a buffer against psychological disorders.


3) Brief Resilience Scale

While most resilience assessments look into the factors which develop resilience, The Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) is a self-rating questionnaire aimed at measuring an individuals’ ability to “bounce back from stress”. This instrument, developed by Smith et al. (2008), has not been used in the clinical population; however, it could provide some key insights for individuals with health-related stress (Smith, et al., 2008).

Amat et al. (2014) explain that the BRS instrument consists of six items, three positively worded items, and three negatively worded items. All six relate to the individual’s ability to bounce back from adversity. The scale’s development controlled for protective factors such as social support in order to get a reliable resilience measure (Smith, et al., 2008).

This is the third and final resilience measure noted by Windle et al. (2011) as a highly valid and reliable measure of resilience, but there are many more with evidence to back their effectiveness.


4) Resilience Scale

This scale is the oldest scale on our list but is still in use by many researchers. The Resilience Scale, developed by Wagnild and Young in 1993, was created and validated with a sample of older adults (aged 53 to 95 years). This scale consists of 25 items and the results have been found to positively correlate with physical health, morale, and life satisfaction, while negatively correlating with depression.

The scale is intended to measure resilience based on five essential characteristics:

  1. Meaningful Life (or Purpose)
  2. Perseverance
  3. Self-Reliance
  4. Equanimity
  5. Existential Aloneness

These five characteristics are assessed using two subscales, the 17-item Personal Competence subscale and the 8-item Acceptance of Self and Life subscale.

Subsequent validation of the scale in 2009 by Wagnild reaffirmed its internal consistency and construct validity, supporting its continued effectiveness as a tool for the assessment of resilience.

In addition to the original 25-item scale, there is a shortened 14-item scale that has also proven to be valid and reliable in measuring resilience (Abiola & Udofia, 2011).


5) Scale of Protective Factors (SPF)

The Scale of Protective Factors (SPF) was developed by Ponce-Garcia, Madwell, and Kennison in 2015 to capture a comprehensive measurement of resilience. The authors tested and validated this resilience scale in a sample of nearly 1,000 college students, and found the SPF to be a valid and reliable measure of resilience for measuring resilience, especially in groups identified as survivors of violent trauma.

This scale measures resilience in a slightly different way than the previously mentioned scales. It focuses on the factors that combine to create a buffer between individuals who have experienced trauma and the stress and disruption to functioning that can follow, rather the components that constitute resilience directly.

It consists of 24 items measuring two social-interpersonal factors ( and ) and two cognitive-individual factors ( and ).

The SPF has since been validated in a review of resilience scales by Madewell and Ponce-Garcia (2016), providing evidence of its validity and effectiveness in clinical use.


6) Predictive 6-Factor Resilience Scale

The Predictive 6-Factor Resilience Scale was developed based on the neurobiological underpinnings of resilience and the theorized relationship with health hygiene factors (Roussouw & Roussouw, 2016).

The PR6 measures resilience as a function of six domains concerning several interrelated concepts:

  • Vision: self-efficacy and goal-setting
  • Composure: emotional regulation and the ability to identify, understand, and act on internal prompts and physical signals
  • Tenacity: perseverance and hardiness
  • Reasoning: higher cognitive traits, like problem-solving, resourcefulness, and thriving
  • Collaboration: psychosocial interaction, such as secure attachment, support networks, context, and humor
  • Health: physiological health

The PR6 was found to have good internal consistency and correlate with other measures of resilience as well as health hygiene scores.

Based on these results, the PR6 can be considered an effective measurement and a particularly good assessment for use in improving resilience.


7) Ego Resilience Scale

This scale was developed by Block and Kremen in 1996 for use in measuring resilience in non-psychiatric contexts. While the authors term their construct “ego resiliency,” it is basically resilience as we know it viewed in terms of adaptability to changes in one’s circumstances.

The Resilience Scale (RS-14) consists of 14 items rated on a scale from 1 = does not apply to 4 = applies very strongly, with higher scores indicating higher levels of resilience.

Scores on this scale have been found to positively correlate with intelligence as it relates to the ability to adapt, supporting the scale’s ability to assess an individual’s ability to bounce back from failure and disappointment.


8) Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30)

Finally, the Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) is a recently developed measure used to assess resilience in a particular context: academic success. Simon Cassidy (2016) describes academic resilience as the tendency to persevere and succeed in education despite meeting with adversity. It is a multi-dimensional construct focusing on both cognitive affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity.

The ARS-30 is based on responses to a vignette describing a significant academic challenge, rated on a scale from 1 = likely to 5 = unlikely.

The items in this scale fall into one of three factors:

  1. Perseverance
  2. Reflecting and Adaptive Help-Seeking
  3. Negative Affect and Emotional Response

High scores on factors 1 and 2 and low scores on factor 3 indicate high resilience.

This scale was found to be highly internally reliable, and scores correlated significantly with a measure of academic self-efficacy. While the ARS-30 is most appropriate in academic contexts, scores can be useful in other situations as well.


Resilience at Work (and Why It Matters)

bounce back from stress resilience scales

“As a leader, apologize for making mistakes. Don’t apologize for making decisions.”

Resilience is an important characteristic in the context of work. Nobody is a consistently perfect employee, and everybody will at some point receive critical feedback or experience a failure at work.

This fact of life highlights the role of resilience in the workplace, as a means for employees to recognize where they have failed or come up short, identify the most constructive ways to move forward, and bounce back with vigor and enthusiasm to get it right the next time.

In addition to the stereotypical experiences that require resilience to survive, resilience is integral in other, less obvious situations as well – we often need to be resilient even in the face of positive changes! Increased responsibility, forward progress, and significant positive events can all result in the need for adaptation and recovery (Youssef & Luthans, 2007).

However, it is usually the responses to negative change that highlight the need for resilience.

In the workplace, a lack of resilience can manifest itself in many ways – the fear of presenting in front of an audience, the frustration after receiving criticism for one’s work, the guilt about not spending enough time with one’s family, the embarrassment one feels after a meeting that didn’t go well.

In the book The Resilience Factor, Karen Reivich and Andrew Shatté (2002) identify the five typical emotions that are associated with a lack of resilience, namely;

  • Anger
  • Sadness or Depression
  • Guilt
  • Anxiety or Fear
  • Embarrassment

Of course, these emotions are completely natural to experience from time to time. The key to recognizing these emotions as indicators of a lack of resilience is whether they are disproportionate to the event (looking back you might catch yourself thinking “that was over the top!”), or if the same event triggers the same emotion repeatedly.

For those who identify with this description, an increase in resilience would be hugely beneficial.

In the workplace, a lack of resilience can become an issue when it prevents you from developing your skills and interacting effectively with others. For example, a fear of public speaking may lead you to remain silent even when you know you have something to contribute to a discussion. Another example is if you become defensive when receiving negative feedback, losing the opportunity to learn and develop your skills.

In short, a lack of resilience can have an immediate impact on motivation, cognitive functioning, and emotional wellbeing. In cases of a serious lack of resilience, it leads to helplessness and seeing oneself as a victim of circumstance.

Conversely, we all know people who immediately pick themselves up and dust themselves off after a setback, regardless of what stressors and tragedies life throws at them. In general, resilience is defined as the ability to bounce back from adversity, and resilient people practice resilience by assessing and exploring all of their options before taking action. These tendencies make it unlikely that they repeat unhelpful past experiences.

For us to flourish and thrive at work (and at home, for that matter) we need to ensure we recognize those emotions as they arise, assess whether they are appropriate, take responsibility for our lack of resilience, if that is the case, and apply the tools to reframe our experiences.


11 Reasons Why Organizations Should Pay Attention to Resilience

resilience and leadership at workFor organizations, it is extremely important to understand the indicators of a lack of resilience and teach leaders and employees how to respond to difficult situations in order to increase their resilience.

Four of the most important reasons why organizations should understand the contributors of resilience and start introducing programs which build resilience are:


General Employee Wellbeing

While organizations can work to address workload issues in parallel, resilience skills directly benefit employees’ psychological wellbeing by helping them reframe their perception of stress. Healthy and happy employees are productive employees, making employee well-being an important consideration for every organization.


Career Development

Employees looking to grow and develop their skills will benefit from learning to cope with adverse work situations, such as negative feedback. Managers who understand the dynamics of resilience can coach their employees much more effectively.

Research has shown that people (and women in particular) who tend to attribute their failures to personal shortcomings are at risk of diminishing self-confidence, a problem that can be addressed through the development of resilience skills.


Innovation & The Learning Curve

Most companies need to innovate on an ongoing basis to survive in this business climate. This means that employees need to work constantly on maintaining and upgrading their capabilities. This can be hampered by the so-called learning curve – essentially the experience of a dip in skill and motivation as individuals learn to apply a new skill. This can be frustrating and possibly lead to stagnation if the new skills are not applied successfully.

Managers who recognize that their employees are displaying signs of “non-resilience” during this learning curve (rather than interpreting the same behavior as non-cooperation, for example) can jump right in and begin providing the appropriate support, thus ensuring effective learning and laying the groundwork for successful innovation.



A lack of resilience often becomes apparent in our interpersonal situations. By understanding typical behaviors linked to a lack of resilience, leaders can encourage employees to examine their thinking patterns and change their interpretation of the situation, thereby reducing negative feelings between team members and improving team dynamics.

In short, resilient employees are simply better employees, on average. They meet their challenges in different ways, develop and maintain better buffers against stress and anxiety, and more effectively recover from the setbacks that everyone experiences from time to time.

Paula Davis-Laack (2014), a positive psychologist who has applied her knowledge and skills to the practice enhancing resilience in thousands of working professionals, lays out the seven ways that resilient employees do things differently, benefitting both themselves and their organization.

Highly resilient employees:

  • Develop high-quality connections
  • Manage stress effectively and avoid burnout
  • Act authentically and in accordance with their strengths and values
  • Develop grit (the passion and perseverance to pursue long-term goals)
  • Stay inspired and find meaning
  • Stay flexible and mentally tough
  • Actively manage change and setbacks

Any leader would agree that these seven capabilities are extremely desirable in employees. These are the employees that produce high-quality work, innovate, and spread their inspiration and motivation to their colleagues.

Luckily for leaders everywhere, resilience is a characteristic that can be built, developed, and enhanced in any workforce (Youssef & Luthans, 2007).


Building Resilience at Work and Beyond

happy and resilient employeesTo quote renowned positive psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (2002, p.200):

“The ability to take misfortune and make something good come of it is a rare gift. Those who possess it (…) are said to have resilience or courage.”

While some people certainly seem to be born with the resilience gene, some of the necessary skills of resilience can also be learned when practiced over time.

There are a number of useful models and tools that offer frames for understanding and building resilience. The following three models address the topic of resilience from various angles and can provide useful insights.


1. The ABCDE model

Briefly described by Seligman (2012) and addressed in detail in Reivich and Shatté (2002), this model explains how the five key negative emotions mentioned earlier in this article are linked to specific experiences. Feeling angry is usually linked to the perceived violation of one’s rights. Feeling embarrassed is usually the result of an unfavorable social comparison. Sadness and depression are often linked to the loss of self-worth.

These 5 specific steps introduced in this ABCDE model offer the keys to building resilience:

  1. Adversity (recognizing any unfavorable thought patterns)
  2. Beliefs (finding the true reason behind the emotions)
  3. Consequences (recognizing the negative impact of these emotions)
  4. Disputation (learning to challenge them)
  5. Energization (begin choosing new and more effective courses of action)


2. The 7 Pillars of Resilience

This model by German psychotherapist Micheline Rampe (2010) is useful for understanding the key steps that need to be taken by an individual on their journey to resilience. Many of the strategies described by Rampe (2010) are compatible with approaches recommended in positive psychology literature.

These 7 pillars are:

  1. Developing optimism (leading to positive expectations enabling a person to take positive action)
  2. Acceptance of the situation
  3. Focusing on potential solutions
  4. Taking responsibility for one’s own life
  5. Escaping from the role as a victim of circumstance
  6. Building a support network
  7. Planning a flexible strategy for dealing with future challenges

These pillars offer key steps that give an individual the tools for dealing with adversity in a positive and constructive way.

It should be noted that in the absence of real, objective reasons that things are going to be better, hope and optimism can be counter-productive. Without subsequent improvement in circumstances, there is a good chance that unrealistic hope and optimism will lead to disappointment.

If nothing changes about your situation or your course of action, how can you expect things to be different in the future? This is called “big optimism” and or false hope, and it should not be encouraged in those who are not naturally highly optimistic.


3. The Three Musketeers of Resilience

The book Restore Yourself by Edy Greenblatt (2009) presents strategies for combating professional exhaustion and burnout by focusing on regular restoration of personal resources.

The “three musketeers” described by Greenblatt are;

  • Gaining an understanding of what restores or depletes a person’s energy (what may be perceived as stress by one person may be seen as relaxing for another, such as violent video games)

  • Questioning social tags such as “work” or “vacation” to identify their true restoration and depletion triggers (essentially getting more specific about situations that give or deplete energy both at work and in our private life)

  • Becoming aware that, over time, a person’s sources of depletion and restoration will change and adapt accordingly

These models can be employed by individuals hoping to develop their own resilience as well as by organizations interested in building a resilient workforce. While true resilience requires one to take responsibility for their own life, there are ways to encourage the development of resilience in employees.

For example, George Everly, Jr. (2011) describes how organizations can build a resilient organizational culture in an article from the Harvard Business Review.

The framework Everly, Jr. outlines is a simple one:

  • People prosper from success – creating an environment in which employees have the tools to succeed will help build resilient employees.

  • People learn while observing others – encourage formal and informal professional groups within the organization and place new employees in successful working groups to encourage them to model that success.

  • Encouragement, support, and mentoring are vital – interpersonal support is one of the strongest predictors of success and resilience.

  • Managing stress is key – providing employees with basic training in managing their stress can pay huge dividends in increased productivity and enhanced quality, not to mention fewer absences and healthier employees.

Consistent with this framework, Everly, Jr. notes two impactful things organizations have done to infuse their workforce with resilience, including:

  1. Investing in their leaders by providing training in resilience and resilient leadership skills.

  2. Investing in all levels of the workforce by promoting employee health and wellness, in the form of employee wellness programs, workshops on physical fitness and nutrition, and stress management training for employees and their families.

Forbes contributor Alan Kohll (2017) echoes these lessons in building a resilient workforce, noting that the development of resilience can be enhanced by organizations through:

  • Leading by example and building resilience at the executive level and in the management team
  • Fostering a sense of purpose and helping employees find meaning in their work
  • Promoting a sense of control and self-confidence in employees
  • Managing change effectively and responsibly to ensure that change is seen as an opportunity rather than a roadblock
  • Encouraging employee connections, whether formal or informal, through mentorship and company-recognized employee interest groups
  • Addressing stress levels, both in the organization as a whole and in individual employees
  • Nurturing a healthy sense of humor in the workplace (the appropriate level will depend on the organization and the industry)
  • Fostering grit and mental toughness in employees
  • Providing as many opportunities as possible for learning and professional development
  • Staying optimistic and using positive messaging
  • Encouraging flexibility and adaptability in employees, workgroups, and the organization as a whole
  • Building problem-solving skills at all levels of the company
  • Promoting good habits for physical and mental health

Of course, there are also ways in which individuals can work on building their resilience in both their personal lives and the workplace as well. Rich Fernandez, veteran director of learning and organizational development at companies like Google, eBay, and J. P. Morgan Chase, provides five suggestions for enhancing your resilience at work (2016):

  1. Exercise mindfulness to manage and minimize stress
  2. Compartmentalize your work to enhance your productivity and decrease cognitive strain
  3. Take “detachment breaks” to work with your natural mental focus, clarity, and energy cycles
  4. Developmental agility to respond thoughtfully and constructively to stress
  5. Cultivate compassion for yourself and for others to enhance your wellbeing and decrease stress

If building a resilient workforce is your goal for the future, investing in our course ‘Realizing Resilience Masterclass‘, would give you the exact tools you need for this admirable goal. Not only can the course be done online, but all the material will be available to your organization due to the Extended Usage Rights.


Want to Learn More About Resilience?

Download the ‘Road to Resilience’ PDF by the Discovery Health Channel and American Psychological Association or watch Sam Goldstein’s excellent TED Talk on the Power of Resilience.


A Take-Home Message

Resilience is the incredibly useful ability to adapt and cope with adversities and stresses, and fortunately for us, it can be built and developed over time. The eight resilience scales presented here can be utilized to get a general idea of how resilient you (or your employees) are, and hopefully, the tips on building resilience can help you go from there.

It is important to note that most resilience measures have been developed, researched and put to use in the West and when the resilience scales are applied to non-Western populations, validity and reliability issues may arise. It is the duty of each researcher to consider the internal consistency and validity of their selected resilience scale in the context of their population (Amat et al. 2014).

If more organizations devote their attention to the resilience of their workforce and focus on building resilience at every level, they will be better able to prevent and combat stress and burnout and build a thriving organization full of capable, productive, and flourishing individuals.

I wish you the best of luck as you use this information to measure, share, and build resilience in your communities.

Thank you for reading, and please reach out to us in the comments if you have any thoughts about the resilience scales mentioned or measuring resilience in general. We’d love to hear from you!

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our 3 Resilience Exercises for free.

If you wish to learn more, our Realizing Resilience Masterclass© is a complete, science-based, 6-module resilience training template for practitioners that contains all the materials you’ll need to help your clients overcome adversity in a more resilient way.

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About the Author

Courtney Ackerman, MA, is a graduate of the positive organizational psychology and evaluation program at Claremont Graduate University. She is currently working as a researcher for the State of California and her professional interests include survey research, wellbeing in the workplace, and compassion.


  1. K. Paul ADP

    I’m Paul and I’m currently working on my thesis regarding personal financial resilience. I am thinking if I could use the BRS, or are there other more suitable scales that I can use? Thanks in advance.

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Paul,

      Sounds like an interesting project! If you want a scale specifically pertaining to financial resilience, perhaps take a look at Salignac et al. (2019). They’ve created a framework and accompanying assessment tool that looks pretty comprehensive 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  2. Ramil Bergamo

    Good day. I’m doing a qualitative research on resilience for People Living with HIV in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. Can you suggest a reference guide for an interview questionnaire for this one or at least a pattern of open-ended questions that is close to this topic? Thank you so much and appreciate your response. Stay safe.

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ramil,

      While I’m not aware of any qualitative studies addressing this exact combination of topics, here are a few potentially useful sources for you:

      The WHOQOL-HIV Instrument (contains many questions which you could adapt into interview questions). Ballivian et al. (2020), which examined stress experienced by people with HIV during COVID lockdowns and identified resilient coping strategies as significantly reducing the negative impacts of stress. The coping strategies described may serve as a good guide for developing your own interview questions that tap into these.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  3. Rovelyn Ambrosio

    We are from Our Lady of Fatima University in the Philippines, are currently conducting our research entitled The Relationship of Psychological Distress and Resiliency of Displaced workers due to pandemic. So, could you help me to find the right resilience scale and please give me the link to access the scale

    We are deeply hoping for your best advice, thank you!

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Rovelyn,

      Sounds like an interesting project. It looks like CD-RISC has been used in general research pertaining to resilience in the face of COVID-19 (see this paper by Ferreira et al., 2020), so this may be a good one to take a look at. But if the resilience you’re looking to measure has more to do with persistence in finding new work or dealing with economic hardship, let me know the specifics, and I might be able to point you toward something more targeted 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  4. Noor ul huda

    Greetings for the day, I am Noor ul huda, student of Mphil in Institute of clinical psychology, university of Karachi. I am working on my synopsis. I am planning to see impact of positive psychology interventions on resilience in married couples. I would request you to help me with the scale or tool for data collection to be used for pre and post test. please guide me the procedure and formalities that I have to follow for the permission.
    I am waiting for your best advice
    Thank you
    Best Regards,
    Noor ul huda

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Noor ul huda,

      Sounds like an interesting project! Could you please provide a little more information about the specific focus of resilience you’re interested in. I.e., are you interested in resilience as it relates to overcoming challenges in the relationship, or is it more about individuals’ holistic resilience to tackle life challenges more broadly (and it’s just that your sample is married couples).

      Let me know, and I should be able to point you in the right direction.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      • Noor ul huda

        Thank you so much for your response. I am interested in resilience as it relates to overcoming challenges in the relationship, and how it help couples in emotional and physical crisis.

        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Noor ul huda,

          Thank you for your reply. In that case, perhaps take a look at the paper by Sharpley et al. (2020), who use the CD-RISC. Or, even better perhaps, check out the Couple Resilience Inventory by Sanford et al. (2016), which was designed to assess couples’ resilience specifically in the context of stressful life events.

          I hope this helps you!

          – Nicole | Community Manager


    Hey I wanted to study emotional resilience of college students . which scale will be the most suited one.
    Thank you
    Naseem Abbas
    PhD Scholar

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Naseem,

      Could you please provide a little more information about the domain in which you want to measure resilience? E.g., are you interested in the degree to which students are resilient in regards to their studies, other life stressors, or resilient in general? If you let me know this, I should be able to point you in the right direction 🙂

      – Nicole | Community Manager


    Greetings for the Day . Hi ,I am Yashwanth SP, pursuing Occupational Therapy final year in Sri Ramachandra University , chennai, TamilNadu,India. As a part of my studies I am working on my dissertation .And I am seeking permission to use Brief Resilience Scale in my dissertation .I would request you to help me with the scale or tool for data collection to be used for pre and post test.
    Please guide me with the procedure and formalities that I have to follow for the same and also permission.

    Please Do Needful.
    kindly Acknowledge and Revert ASAP.

    Best Regards,
    Yashwanth SP.

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Yashwanth,

      The authors have made The Brief Resilience Scale available to use for free and it is accessible here. You do not need to request formal permission to use it.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  7. Andini Bhestari

    Hi! Greeting from Indonesia. My name is Andini Bhestari and currently im in the way to finishing my thesis. My thesis is about the effect of resilience on post traumatic growth to earthquake survivors. So, could you help me to find the right resilience scale to my thesis and please give me the link to access the scale.

    Im waiting for your best advice, thank you!

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Andini,

      I’d suggest checking out First et al’s (2020) Disaster Adaptation and Resilience Scale (DARS), which may be the sort of thing you’re looking for. 🙂

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  8. Ananda Imanuela

    I am Ananda and currently I am a master student in psychology at the University of Surabaya, Indonesia. I would like to organize resilience training to deal with the caregiver burden on caregivers of children with cancer.
    Would you please help me with references that I can use to structure the sessions in my training?
    Thank you in advance

    Best Regards,

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Ananda,

      Sounds like an interesting project. I can suggest a couple of review articles that may help get you started:

      Adelman et al. (2014)
      Bastawrous (2013)

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  9. imanshi

    Hey I wanted to study spiritual well being and resilience. which scale will be the most suited one.
    Thank you

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Imanshi,

      To measure spiritual well-being, perhaps take a look at Paloutzian and Ellison’s (1982) Spiritual Well-Being Scale. As for an appropriate resilience scale, I’d need to know a little more about the context, population, or design of your study. Will you be wanting to administer the scale more than once? And is your interest in resilience in a particular domain of life or in light of some particular circumstances (e.g., illness).

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  10. Karlina

    Hello there,
    Thank you very much for the insightful article. Currently, I am working on my research about psychological and community resilience of tourism workers in rural area during Covid-19 pandemic. I need to find the most suitable scale regarding to the project and I found that the Brief Resilience Scale is might be the appropriate one. Moreover, I will be very grateful if you can address your view about this and give further suggestions about the scale because somehow I feel unsure either.

    Best regards,

    • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

      Hi Karlina,

      Glad you enjoyed the post. You might find this article by Cox and Hamlen (2014) useful, as they validated a scale assessing resilience among rural communities in the wake of natural disasters. It’s possible you could adapt it to meet your needs.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

    • Esmeralda aka Emerald Gonzalez

      love the article. I now a facilitator to positive psychology coach. I would love to know and start positive psychology in the school. They use words resilience, mindful, consciousness
      do you know if they know it come from this 1997 theory not mention Maslow. But again trying meet people how are outside of the online audience. Diamond Bar CA.

  11. Herlis

    I’m Herlis and currently I’m student at the Syiah Kuala University of Aceh, Indonesia. I’m working on my essay entitled the relationship between stress and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Please help me to suggest the appropriate main theory and measurement scale for my research.
    Thank you very much for your time

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Herlis,

      Sounds like an interesting essay. It looks like CD-RISC has been used in general research pertaining to resilience in the face of COVID-19 (see this paper by Ferreira et al., 2020), so this may be a good one to take a look at. For a theory you can hang your essay on, take a look at conservation of resources (COR) theory, which is often used in the context of stress research.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      • Herlis

        Thank you very much for your answers

  12. Scarlett

    Hi Nicole,

    I am working with a small veteran farming project that is working to build resiliency around topics of community relationship building, interpersonal relationships, goal setting/vocational training, and emotional control. I am looking for tools to capture their impact. Can you recommend a resiliency scale or some literature that would be helpful for this?

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Scarlett,

      This sounds like a great project. Here are my thoughts for some scales you might like to take a look at for the various constructs you’ve mentioned:

      – Goal Setting – Nies et al., (2004) – Example item: “I set goals on a regular basis.”
      – Relationship Building/Social support – Friborg et al. (2006) – This is the Adult Resilience Scale, which includes a couple of subscales regarding social connection and social competence.
      – Emotion Regulation – Law (2004) – Example item: “I have good control of my emotion.”

      Hope these scales give you some ideas to point in you in the right direction (and the papers I’ve linked to containing the scales should link out to other useful articles on the topic of these constructs).

      Best of luck with the project!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  13. Kirsten Ocenar

    Do you know where can I access the questionnaire on Resilience Scale for Adults? I would like to use it for my study. Thank you very much.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Kirsten,

      This scale is freely available to use and a copy of it with scoring information can be accessed in Friborg and colleagues’ (2003) original paper here. Our apologies, as this was originally missing from this post’s reference list, but it has been added now.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  14. Kyle Victor Jose

    Hello. I am in search for an academic resilience scale that would be applied to the educational predicaments students faced during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Can AR-30 still be used in this context or is there another similar scale with good psychometric properties I could use? I plan to use the scale for my thesis.

    Thank you so much and I am looking forward to hear from you.


    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Kyle,

      At face value, yes, I’d say that this scale is suitable as it not only has good psychometric properties but it is broadly applicable. That is, the source of adversity (requiring a resilient response) is not specified, meaning that the scale remains applicable to our current context of COVID-19.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  15. Dira

    Hello 🙂
    I’m Dira and currently i’m a master student of psychology profession at the University of North Sumatera, Indonesia. I want to research the effect of gratitude and social support on resilience in mothers with autistic children.
    Help me in selecting the appropriate main theory and measurement scale for my research.
    Thank you in advance

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Dira,

      I would read the following article by Gavidia-payne (2015) which reviews existing research on the construct of parental resilience (which it would appear has been neglected in research) and its proxy constructs (see the relevant subsection on Page 113). If there is an existing scale, it’ll likely appear in one of the articles cited.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  16. Divya Singh

    The article is very helpful. I am working on PCOS patients in India, and one of my variable is resilience and it would be great help if you recommend a good scale for the same.’
    Kindly revert and acknowledge ASAP .


    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Divya,

      Glad you found the article helpful! I am unaware of any resilience scales that assess resilience specifically in relation to PCOS, but you may be able to adapt a measure assessing resilience in relation to other physical health conditions (e.g., check out the scales used by Newton-John et al. 2014 in this paper).

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      • Lukman

        i need a scale to measure the academic resilience of my students on a continuous scale

        • Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

          Hi Lukman,

          For a new measure of academic resilience that’s growing in popularity, take a look at Cassidy’s (2016) 30-item scale published in Front. Psychology.

          Hope this helps!

          – Nicole | Community Manager

  17. Mahmoudian

    Hello dear professors
    I am researching the impact of spirituality on family resilience
    I now need a good scale and test to measure family resilience so I can test the effectiveness of my model
    If you guide me, I will be very grateful to you
    With respect

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Mahmoudian,

      I’d take a look at the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS). Also, this scale was recently shown to be psychometrically sound in this paper, which may be worth looking at, too.

      Good luck with your research!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  18. Ashna A

    Hello, can someone please help me in determining the original sample which was used to develop ARS-30? Is the number of undergraduate students 532(as written in the 2016 publication) or 435(as given in the 2015 publication)? Please address my query, thank you.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Ashna,

      My sense is that the 2016 paper and its sample is the one you should cite if you’re referring to the scale development and validation procedures. The 2015 paper appears to be an empirical study that employs the measure, but not so much a validation effort.

      Hope this helps.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      • Ashna A

        Thank you!

  19. Mitch Diokno

    How do you view about the Metatheory of Resilience by Richardson and company? Is it a good theoretical foundation for a psychological test of resilience?

    Thank you.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Mitch,

      Richardson’s Metatheory is widely cited, even by other resilience scale creators (e.g., Connor and Davidson — creators of CD-RISC). Hard to know without conducting a full search of the literature but the paper is certainly widely acknowledged and probably isn’t a bad place to start if you’re looking for a theoretical base. I’d suggest using Google Scholar to check the citing papers that have come after this one to ensure there isn’t anything more recent that’s gained traction in the past 20 years or so (seeing as this paper is a bit older).

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  20. Tootz

    Good Day!
    Would like to seek permission to use the Brief Resilience Scale as a tool for my MA Thesis.

    Hoping for your favorable response,
    best regards


    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Tootz,

      Of course! The authors have made The Brief Resilience Scale available to use for free. It can be accessed at this link.

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  21. Ashna A

    Hello, I’m an undergraduate student and am doing my my Semester 5 assignment on Academic Resilience Scale-30 (ARS-30). I cannot find a comprehensive question online with all the 5 options on the Likert scale specified, I could only find out that it ranges from 1 (Unlikely) to 5 (Likely). If someone could please direct me to the questionnaire with all the 5 options I will be extremely grateful.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Ashina,

      Often researchers will have the two scale anchors and just the numbers 2, 3, and 4 in between without a label. So, if this is not stated in the original paper, chances are, the authors just didn’t include labels for these values.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

      • Ashna A

        Thank you so much!

  22. Michael F

    Has anyone had any luck with the authors of the Academic Resilience Scale for permission to use their scale in doctoral research in academics? I have tried the website email and the author, but no luck 🙁 Proposal due soon!

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Michael,
      To see the scale items, please see Table 2 of this article. Hope this helps!
      – Nicole | Community Manager


    I would like to know is there any resilience scale for children ?

    • Nayla

      Hi – I am also interested in this topic. Is there a resilience scale for children?

      • Nicole Celestine

        Hi Nayla and Shruti,
        Depends what age children you would like the scale to be geared toward. There are certainly several out there suitable for use with adolescents. Perhaps take a look at this one (focused on assessing trauma) if you would like something particularly suitable for young children.
        Hope this helps!
        – Nicole | Community Manager

  24. Cheryl Tan

    I would like to find out what is the best scale to use for measuring team/workplace resilience, as the above scales are more suited towards measuring individual resilience.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Cheryl,
      I would suggest checking out this article to see how these authors have measured team resilience. If it’s not obvious, you could even reach out to the authors to ask for the items they used. Failing that, I’m aware that scholars often use scales geared at the individual level and rephrase the items to apply to the team or organizational context.
      Hope this helps!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  25. Aneela sherazi

    I am Aneela sherazi and seeking for permission to use ‘Brief resilience Scale’ in my research project. Please guide me how can i take permission from author

    • Nicole Celestine, Community Manager

      Hi Aneela,
      Of course! The authors have made The Brief Resilience Scale available to use for free. It can be accessed at this link.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  26. Dr. Karen Katchen

    I am interested in permission to access and use 3 of these resilience measures for an initiative in Canada.
    1. Predictive 6 Factor Scale – Roussouw and Roussouw 2016
    2. Wagnild and Young 1993
    3. Brief Resilience Scale Smith etc al 2008
    I would appreciate the contact information for the authors and sources for the measures including items and scoring details. With thanks. Dr. Karen Katchen

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Karen,
      1. It seems that the PR6 may be proprietary. You may need to get certified (and possibly pay) to use the PR6.
      2. Here’s the link to the Wagnild & Young (1993) scale.
      3. Here’s the link to the Brief Resilience Scale.
      I’d recommend Googling the authors’ names to find their latest contact details as these can change when researchers change affiliations.
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  27. Rasyid-Mohammad Tauhid-al-Amien

    I still couldn’t find guidance to whether the resilience scales must or must not be weighted to find final “score” to judge individuals as highly, moderately, low, or else in their resilience levels.

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Rasyid-Mohammad,
      Generally these scales don’t have cut-offs for high, medium, and low levels of a given construct. If you’re working with a set of a responses within a dataset (i.e., in a research context), sometimes it makes sense to treat +1/-1 standard deviation above and below the mean as high/low levels of a construct. But this probably won’t help you much in a therapeutic context. That being said, the creators of the PR6 scale offer some training for those who administer the scale, and this might include some indication of high/med/low cut-off values.
      Hope this helps a little!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  28. Chris Sunderland

    Great resource, thanks. Are you able to direct me to resources for assessing and measuring resilience in groups or larger populations?

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Chris,
      Glad you enjoyed the post. A good starting point may be to check out the following Team Resilience measure by Sharma and Sharma (2016). It’s possible you’ll be able to adapt the items to apply to the particular group/population you are interested in.
      Hope this helps!
      – Nicole | Community Manager

  29. Dr Norizah Ibrahim

    My name is Izah Ibrahim. I would like to use your CYRM for my study. How can I contact the author to ask the permission to use the scale?
    Would be grateful if you could reply my email…..

    • Nicole Celestine

      Hi Izah,

      You can access the CYRM by completing a short questionnaire at the creators’ website here.

      Hope this helps!

      – Nicole | Community Manager

  30. Elaine Beardsley

    Hello- thank you so much for a great article. I work for a large healthcare organization and am doing work on staff well being and resilience. In addition to the traditional engagement surveys, do you recommend a tool that combines aspects of well being, burnout, and resilience factors? I am looking at the MBI, CD, and Well being index but would love to know your recommendations.

  31. Asma Rafique

    i need resilience scale for adolescents.please help me.

  32. zainab

    I need the permission academic resilience scale for research and the time of submission ethical paper is too close. please help me.

  33. Aditi

    I am in need of academic resilience scale I did visit Asr30 website and emailed then but no reply
    I even emailed the author but no reply
    Plz somebody help me at the earliest possible

  34. Eric Mandane

    Greetings! I would like to use the ARS 30 Scale Test but I can’t find where to contact the author. Can you please help me with this. Thank you very much.

  35. Julie Tunick, MFT

    Thank you for this outstanding article and research. May I use/share your scales with my colleagues?

    • Seph Fontane Pennock

      Absolutely Julie, please do! 🙂

    • Annelé Venter

      Please do!

  36. Reema khan

    I need a scale resilience in adolescence…

  37. Odessa Yvette Jimenez

    Hello! I would like to ask for your permission to let me use your scale as part of my research. Or do I need to message the author of the scale that I will be using?
    Thank you for the time in reading my message.

  38. Odessa Yvette B. Jimenez

    Greetings! We are from the College of Psychology, 3rd year students form Mary the Queen College of Quezon City Philippines and we will be having a research thesis and as part of our activity research I would like to ask for your permission to allow us to use your Global Emotional Intelligence Test as one of the materials we will be needing to complete our research.
    Hoping for your prompt response regarding this letter. Thank you for your time in reading my request letter.
    Sincerely yours,
    Odessa Yvette B. Jimenez

  39. Odessa Yvette Jimenez

    Greetings! I would like to use the ARS 30 Scale Test but I can’t find where to contact the author. Can you please help me with this. Thank you very much.

    • Aditi

      Hello did you find the scale?

  40. Maria

    I am interested in utilizing one of these resiliency scales for a research study. Is there someone I can contact to obtain permission?

  41. Ruvimbo

    I am currently putting together a concept paper for my PHD and I was wondering which scale is best to test resilience in orphans and vulnerable children in orphanages and foster homes .
    Any help would be truly appreciated

  42. Khadija Mazhar

    Hello sir
    I need to use the ego resilience scale of block and Adam Kremen 1996 I need to contact with author for permission to used this scale in my research I have no anytime to wait kindly please help me

  43. harshita ahuja

    Warm Greeting from India! Namaste!
    I’m eager to research what kind of impact laughter therapy could have on resilience (among normal population), if any. Please suggest me if any of the scales on resilience could be useful to measure impact of laughter intervention on resilience? Please guide if this could be a fruitful area of research?

  44. Lisa

    Thank you!!!

  45. Seema Thakrar

    Hi – excellent article and concisely written.
    Since reading your interesting article, I’ve decided to base my dissertation around it.
    “Is there any relationship between resilience and social support”.
    Looking for a correlation, not causation. Adults only.
    What measurement test scales do you suggest for the correlation ?
    Any advice and guidance would be greatly appreciated.
    Thank you

  46. Edgar Kizito

    Hello, I’m a freelance quotes collector.
    I have just stumbled upon this piece of information on resilience.
    Thank you

  47. Michael

    Hello! I work with highly mobile populations TCKs (Third Culture Kids) and this body of work is deeply relevant. Do you recommend any of the above scales and assessments for young adults? (15-30ish)? Also are you aware of specific research in Resilience with highly mobile and/or cross cultural families and children?

  48. Michelle

    Thank you so much for a very informative article. It helped a lot.
    I am about to start working on my dissertation entitled “Toward A Career Resilient Academic Nurse Leaders vis-a-vis Organizational Resilience Culture”. In line with this, i am hoping if you could help me find the appropriate resilience tool that i can use relative to my study. Thank you very much.

  49. Ejovyllee Bedia

    Hello maam i am a psychology student please guide me of what are the assessment test that I should use for the 3 variables my thesis title is ” suicidal Tendencies, Resiliency and Mental Health Among adolescent in public high school.” Thank you have a good day!

  50. Sabah.

    Hello, I need to use the Resilience Scale by Gail M. Wagnild and Heather M. Young for my dissertation. Although, I need to know whether it is available in the public domain or I need to get the authors’ permission for using it. Can someone please help me with confirming it’s domain? Thank you.
    P.S. Also mentioning which scales from the list above are in the public domain would be a huge help. (for others too)

  51. Sapna Joshi

    Dear Sir/Ma’am,
    Hiie,I am Sapna Joshi from Mumbai,India. Currently I am pursuing M.A. in Education from IGNOU as a part of my studies I am working on my dissertation on an interesting and most important topic Adversity Quotient.
    The title of the Dissertation is “A study of the effectiveness of the intervention programme to inculcate skills to handle adversity for happy living among upper primary school students.”
    I would request you to help me with the scale or tool for data collection to be used for pre and post test. I have already worked on my intervention modules.
    Please guide me with the procedure and formalities that I have to follow for the same.
    Kindly acknowledge and revert ASAP.
    Regards and thanks,
    Sapna Arun Joshi

    • Courtney E Ackerman

      Hi Sapna! I’m not very familiar with that topic, but I’m happy to suggest a scale that might suit your needs.
      If you’re interested specifically in academic resilience, I’d recommend the ARS-30 (scale #8 on this list). If not, the CD-RISC (scale #1 on this list) or the Brief Resilience Scale (scale #3 on this list) would both be good options in terms of validity and use with your population.
      To learn more about how to use whichever scale you choose, please refer to the sources cited to learn more.
      Best of luck in your dissertation research!

  52. Penny Power

    Wonderful to see these resources and hope to be able to help you build awareness of all your hard work

    • Courtney E Ackerman

      Thanks for your comment Penny! I’m so glad you found this piece helpful.

  53. Karen Munce

    Hi there, is the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in the public domain? I can’t locate it anywehere – please provide a link. Thank-you.

    • Courtney E Ackerman

      Hey Karen, I haven’t been able to find a copy of the RSA either. I believe you need to contact the scale developers directly to obtain the scale and permission to use it.

  54. Belinda wilson

    I have scrolled thru this lengthy article and was amazed that the essential of creativity and simply creating things (which is fundamental for a healthy human being )was not mentioned anywhere

    • Courtney E Ackerman

      Hey Belinda, I agree that creativity is vital for a healthy, happy life! We tackle the topic of creativity in many other articles on this site if you’re interested. However, creativity is not a big part of the resilience literature. Perhaps it should be, though?
      Thanks for your comment!

    • Suzanne

      Exactly spot on! We know of art/creativity programs especially geared to PTSD/physically injured military soldiers, painting and art programs for those in chemo/cancer therapy, art and music therapy in elder care, music and art therapy for those w Autism, trauma, etc etc etc. Gardening as therapy for instance. What an enormous gap!

  55. ava

    this was very helpful, i’m doing my dissertation about nurses personal resiliency in disaster situation.myvariable was confidence, self care . self awareness and assertiveness to measure their resiliency .

  56. Mathilda van der Vyver

    I viewed this site in my search for access to the Resilience Scale for Adults. I would like to use the scale in my research study, but have not been able to determine how to get hold of this scale. I received no response from the from the author/developer. Could you perhaps advise me of how to get hold of the scale?

    • Victoria Brown

      Hi Mathilda,
      Out of curiosity have you managed to track down any further information? I am in exactly the same position!
      Can anyone else provide any support with this?
      Best wishes,

    • Courtney E Ackerman

      Hi Mathilda–sorry for the late reply, I just saw your comment. I have not been able to find a copy of the RSA either. Perhaps your next move might be to check who else has used the scale in their study and contact them to find out how they got ahold of it?
      Wouldn’t it be great if researchers were more open with their scales? Best of luck in finding it!

  57. Mary

    The article is great actually my dissertation topic is specifically about resilience of customer service employees in comparison to employees behind the desk so i’m looking for a valid scale or measurement like reliability and validity and what type of theories are related. can you suggest me anything
    thank you.

    • Courtney Ackerman

      Hey Mary, I’d suggest the Ego Resilience scale for your purposes since it’s centered on the adaptability portion of resilience, and it sounds like that’s what you’re interested in; however, there are certainly good arguments for using one of the other scales! I recommend looking into the references I cited here for more information about each scale and how they differ.
      Good luck!

  58. omran ahmadian

    The article was very useful.I wish I’d seen this sooner. One of the variables in my dissertation in Industrial and Organizational Psychology was about the effect of resilience on the moderating of the relationship between stressors with job burnout and the quality of life associated with health and the intention to leave a job.
    the results showed that Resilience can moderate the correlation of job stressors and job burnout(and also health related quality of life and turnover intention).so the person with high resilience, have less burnout and less turnover intention and high health related quality of life.
    Good luck

    • Courtney Ackerman

      Hey Omran, thanks for sharing your findings with us. It seems like an interesting study, and it totally makes sense that resilience can act as a buffer between job stressors and burnout!

  59. Jessie van den Heuvel

    This post has been updated on the 13th of July 2017. It has been made more extensive and more external links and resources have been added. Please enjoy!

  60. Gail Wagnild

    Thank you for your interesting article and TED talk inclusion. I want to let you know that you might want to include the Resilience Scale in future postings. It is a highly valid and reliable resilience measure used with more than 3 million people around the world in 150 countries. It is almost 25 years old. Thank you.

    • Jessie van den Heuvel

      Thank you very much for sharing this with us Gail!

  61. Edward

    I noticed that you left out the Scale of Protective Factors by Ponce-Garcia and colleagues. It has as good or better psychometric properties when compared to the CDRISC and RS but is the only of the three to have been validated in a sexual assault sample. The RSA that you have listed has not yet been validated on American samples.

    • Stephanie Diepering

      Hello Robin, thanks for the resources! Is there something I can assist you with?

      • Stephanie Diepering

        Robin would you be interested in writing something for our blog on your recent book? It would be an honour to hear your thoughts and advice. If you are interested then send me an email at

  62. Deborah Nixon

    Stumbled on this in researching resiliency assessments. I am in the camp that adults vary in whether they are resilient and much is due to upbringing and life experience. You can get better at resilience through coaching but as a certified coach, I have seen those who get better at resilience- but they already had the mindset of refusing to be a victim. There are others who feel victimized no matter what, are self-interested and believe that externalities are responsible for what has happened to them. That is a worldview that can’t be changed through coaching- that usually requires therapy.

    • Stephanie Diepering

      Hello Deborah. I fully agree with you and there is definitely a strong line that exists between what coaching can offer versus what therapy can do to help people overcome their troubles and yes perhaps it is in willpower that we can make some differentiation. Very interesting idea, thanks for sharing with us!

  63. Simon Cassidy

    I though perhaps the follwoing link might be helpful on the subject of measuring resilience, and in particular resilience in student populations:

    • Stephanie Diepering

      Thanks for sharing this with us Simon!

  64. shiela queday

    BRS are fit on my research study about resilience. How can i get the brs interpretation and its scoring. Thank you for kindly consideration.

  65. Robin Hills

    Seph, I would be delighted to write a blog in support of my comments and to compliment your blog.
    Thank you for asking me.

  66. Marylie Gerson

    I’d be delighted. Thank you for your interest!

  67. Marylie Gerson

    Some studies have viewed resilience as more than just “bouncing back.” I’ve found in my own research (e.g., Gerson & Fernandez, 2013), however, that it is helpful to differentiate between resilience, as bouncing back, and thriving or flourishing, as gaining strength from difficult experiences. Factors such as gratitude, spirituality, and perceived social connection appear to differentially predict the two variables.

    • Seph

      That is very interesting Marylie. Would you be willing to share your findings in the form of a blogpost for our site? We are publishing a lot on resilience lately and are always looking to provide people with different perspectives and especially new findings.
      Love to hear from you!

  68. Robin Hills

    One of the main issues around resilience is that it is a metaphor borrowed from material science. Measuring a metaphor is likely to raise problems.
    Resilience is more than just “bouncing back”. It is learning from experience so this can be applied in similar circumstances.
    Resilience is about maintaining a realistic optimism whilst remaining focused on worthwhile goals and creatively adapting to changing environments. Focusing on this definition will give more realistic measures.
    The best way of understanding and developing resilience is through coaching. This takes out any reliability and validity issues as each individual can draw upon the experience of their own cultural norms and how they can use what they have learnt in applying it to develop their own levels of resilience.

    • Seph

      Robin, I would love to ask you the same question as I just asked Marylie. Would you be willing to do a short piece sharing your understanding of resilience on this blog?
      I think it might help people to put this concept in the right perspective and provide them with some practical answers on becoming more resilient.
      Love to hear from you,


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